Buscador de Baloncesto

En el siguiente artículo transcribimos el Reglamento WNBA en versión original.
Podrá consultar el reglamento original en página web de la WNBA o consultando su PDF online.

OFFICIAL RULES
OF THE
WOMEN’S NATIONAL
BASKETBALL
ASSOCIATION
2019


RULES INDEX
RULE SECTION ARTICLE PAGE
FRONTCOURT/BACKCOURT
Definitions 4 V a, b 12
Eight (8) Second Violation 4 V f 13
Player Position Status 4 V c 12
Ball Position Status 4 V d, e 13
BALL
Alive Ball 6 III 22
Dead Ball 6 IV 23
Jump—Center Circle 6 V 23
Jump—Free Throw Circle 6 VI 23
Live Ball 6 II 22
Putting in Play 6 I 20
Restrictions 6 VII 24
Starting of Games & Overtime(s) 6 I a 20
Starting of 2nd, 3rd & 4th periods 6 I b 21
BASKET INTERFERENCE 11 I 38
BASKET RING, BACKBOARD,
SUPPORT
Definition 4 I 11
CAPTAIN, DUTIES 3 III 8
CLOCK (GAME)
Expiration of Time (Horn) 2 VIII g 7
Expiration of Time (No Horn) 2 VIII h 8
Starting—Jump Ball 2 VIII b 7
5 VIII a 20
Starting—Missed Free Throw 5 VIII a 20
Starting—Throw-in 5 VIII a 20
Stopping—Last Two Minutes 5 V b 17
CLOTHING
Adjusting 5 V c 17
RULE SECTION ARTICLE PAGE
Shirts COMMENTS ON RULES H-4 67
CLUB PERSONNEL 3 IV d 9
COACH
Attire COMMENTS ON RULES H-3 67
Bench 3 IV d 9
Box 3 IV b 9
Fines 12A VII 44
Ejection 3 IV f 9
12A VII g 45
Playing Coach 3 IV c 9
At Halftime/End of Game 12A V f 45
Speaking to Officials—Before
Start of Game or Periods 2 II h 3
Suspension COMMENTS ON RULES E 66
CONDUCT—TEAM
National Anthem COMMENTS ON RULES H-2 67
CORRECTING ERRORS 2 VI 4
COURT
Dimensions, Markings 1 1 1
Diagram A
DEAD BALL 6 IV 23
COMMENTS ON RULES O 70
DEFENSIVE THREE-SECONDS 10 VII _ 35
DEFINITIONS
Backboard 4 I c 11
Basket—Choice of 4 I a 11
Dribble 4 II 11
Field Goal Attempt 4 X 14
Fouls (All Types) 4 III 12
Free Throw 4 IV 12
Frontcourt/Backcourt 4 V 12
Held Ball 4 VI 13
RULE SECTION ARTICLE PAGE
Last Two Minutes 4 XII 14
Legal Goal 5 I a 15
Pivot 4 VII 13
Screen 4 IX 13
Throw-In 4 XI 14
Traveling 4 VIII 13
DELAY OF GAME 12A II 39
DOUBLEHEADERS
Neutral Court & Doubleheaders 3 VI c 11
EIGHT-SECOND BACKCOURT 10 VIII 35
END OF PERIOD 5 III a 16
EQUIPMENT (GAME) 1 II 1
ESCALATORS 12A VI 35
FIELD GOAL
Two (2) Points 5 I b 15
Three (3) Points 5 I c 15
Opponents Basket 5 I d, e 15
FOULS (PERSONAL)
Away-From-Play 12B X 51
Clear-Path-To-The-Basket 12B I e-6 46
Double 12B VI 49
Flagrant COMMENTS ON RULES B 64
12B IV 48
Loose Ball 12B VIII 50
OFFENSIVE 12B VII 49
Punching 12B IX 51
FOULS (TECHNICAL & OTHERS)
Delay of Game—Player & Team 12A II 39
Excessive Timeouts 12A I 39
Face (Eye) Guarding 12A V m 43
RULE SECTION ARTICLE PAGE
Fighting 12A VI 44
Hanging on Rim (Deliberate) 12A IV a 41
Maximum 12A V b 41
Number of Players 12A III 40
Reports 12A V f 42
Throwing Ball at Official 12A V p 43
Unsportsmanlike Conduct
(Punching) 12A V q 43
FREE THROW
Clock, start—Unsuccessful
Clock, start—Successful
Ejection/Injured Player 9 II a EXCEPTION (1) 31
Injured Player—Regular Foul 9 II a EXCEPTION (2) 31
Injured Player —
Unsportsmanlike 9 II a EXCEPTION (3) 31
Next Play 9 III 32
Penalty Situation 12B V 48
Personal Foul—Player Position 9 I b 29
Time Limit 9 I a 29
Technical Foul—Player Position 9 I e 30
Technical Foul—Shooter 12A V j 42
Technical Foul—Team Possession 12A V h 42
Violations 9 I 29
GAME CANCELLATION COMMENTS ON RULES D 65
GOALTENDING 11 I 38
HAND-CHECKING 12B I a, b 45
HOME UNIFORM 3 VI 11
INADVERTENT WHISTLE 2 V d 4
INFECTION CONTROL COMMENTS ON RULES N 69
INSTANT REPLAY 13 52
RULE SECTION ARTICLE PAGE
JUMP BALLS
Center Circle 6 V 23
Double Foul—No Control 6 V a (4) 23
Held Ball, Others 6 VI a (1) 24
Illegal Tap 6 VII 24
Restrictions 6 VII 24
Start of Game/Overtime(s) 6 I a 20
Violations 10 V 34
KICKING BALL -INTENTIONAL 10 IV b 34
LIVE BALL 6 II 22
COMMENTS ON RULES O 70
OFFENSIVE FOUL 12B VII 49
OFFENSIVE THREE SECONDS 10 VI 34
OFFICIALS
Correcting Errors 2 VI 4
Designation 2 II i 3
Different Decisions—On Rules 2 IV a 3
Different Decisions—Out-of-Bounds 6 VI a (2) 24
8 II d 28
2 IV b 3
Discussion, Coaches 2 II h 3
Duties 2 II 2
Elastic Power 2 III 3
In Charge 2 II g 3
Pre-Game Meeting 2 II k 3
Reporting on Floor 2 II j 3
Report on Atypical Situations 2 II l 3
Time & Place for Decisions 2 V 4
OVERTIMES (TIE SCORE) 5 IV 17
OUT-OF-BOUNDS/THROW-IN
Player—Out-of-Bounds 8 I 27
Ball—Out-of-Bounds 8 II 27
RULE SECTION ARTICLE PAGE
Designated Thrower-In 8 III c 28
Throw-In Spot 8 III 28
Violations—Penalty 10 I 32
PERSONAL FOUL
Types 12B I 45
Hand-Checking 12B I a, b 45
Dribbler 12B II 47
Screening 12B III 47
Flagrant 12B IV 48
Penalties—Free Throws 12B V 48
Double Fouls 12B VI 49
Offensive Fouls 12B VII 49
Loose Ball Fouls 12B VIII 50
Punching Fouls 12B IX 51
Away-From-Play Fouls 12B X 51
PLAYER
Conduct 12A V 41
Player/Team Conduct and Dress COMMENTS ON RULES H 67
Conduct—Spectators COMMENTS ON RULES J 67
Cursing 12A V e 42
Disconcerting Free Thrower 9 I f 30
Ejected 12A V b 41
Faking Free Throw 9 I c 29
Equipment 1 II b, c, d 2
Fighting 12A VI 44
Hanging on Rim (Game) 12A IV a 41
Numbering 3 VI a, b 11
Proper Number on Floor 12A III 40
Shattering Backboard COMMENTS ON RULES G 66
Suspension—Physical Contact
with Official COMMENTS ON RULES E 66
Wearing of Jewelry 2 II b 2
PLAY SITUATIONS
Dribble Out-of-Bounds 10 II b 33
Game Clock—0:00 5 III b 16
RULE SECTION ARTICLE PAGE
Field Goal—Opponent’s Basket
Accidentally 5 I d 15
Intentionally 5 I e 15
Putting Ball in Play
Throw-In 10 III a 33
6 I c 21
Free Throw 9 I 29
Timeouts 5 VII 19
Eight-Second Violation 10 VIII 35
Backcourt 10 IX 36
Last Two Minutes 5 VI c, d 18
PROTEST COMMENTS ON RULES F 66
SCORERS, DUTIES OF 2 VII 6
SCORING
Discrepancy 5 I h 16
Free Throw 5 I f 15
Legal Goal 5 I a 15
Tap-In—Missed Free Throw 5 I g 16
Three-Point Field Goal 5 I c 15
Two-Point Field Goal 5 I b 15
SHOT CLOCK
Expiration 7 II k 26
Inadvertent Whistle 7 II j 25
Resetting 7 IV 26
Starting and Stopping 7 II 25
Team Possession 7 II e, f 25
Technical Foul 7 IV b 26
STARTING LINE-UPS 3 II 8
STRIKING THE BALL 10 IV 34
SUBSTITUTES 3 V 9
TAUNTING COMMENTS ON RULES P 70
RULE SECTION ARTICLE PAGE
TEAM POSSESSION 7 II e, f 25
TEAM
Number of Players,
Maximum & Minimum 3 I 8
12A VII c 44
TECHNICAL FOULS 12A 39
TIMEOUT RULES
After a Score 5 VII 19
Backcourt—Last Two Minutes 5 VII d 19
Excessive 12A I 39
Mandatory 5 VIA a 17
Game, Number of 5 VIA a, b 17
Options—Last Two Minutes 5 VIC d 18
Overtimes, Number of 5 VIA c 18
Regular 5 VIA 17
Twenty-Second 5 VIB 18
Requests 5 VII a-f 19
Injury 5 VIC g, h, k 19
TIME-IN 5 VIII 20
TIMERS, DUTIES OF 2 VIII 7
TIMING (LENGTH)
Between Halves 5 II c 16
Disqualification 5 II e 16
Overtime 5 II b 16
Periods 5 II a 16
Timeouts 5 II d 16
TIMING REGULATIONS
End of Period 5 III 16
Illegal Tap 10 V 34
Public Address Announcement 5 II g 16
Tie Score—Overtime 5 IV 17
Time-In 5 VIII 20
RULE SECTION ARTICLE PAGE
Timeout—Regular 5 VIA 17
Timeout—Regular—
Last Two Minutes 5 VIC d 18
Timeout—20-Second 5 VIB 18
Timeout—20-Second—
Last Two Minutes 5 VIC d 18
TWENTY-FOUR (24) SECOND CLOCK
Expiration 7 II k 26
Inadvertent Whistle 7 II j 25
Resetting 7 IV 26
Starting & Stopping 7 II 25
Team Possession 7 II e, f 25
Technical Foul 7 IV b 26
UNIFORMS
Number 3 VI a, b 11
Color 3 VI c 11
Shirts COMMENTS ON RULES H 67
Introductions—Dress COMMENTS ON RULES H 67
VIOLATIONS
Backcourt 10 IX 36
Boundary 10 II b 33
Defensive Three-Seconds 10 VII 35
Designated Thrower-In 10 III a 33
Dribble 10 II 33
Eight (8) Seconds 10 VIII 35
Entering Basket From Below 10 XI 36
Free Throw 9 I 29
Illegal Assist in Scoring 10 XII 36
Jump Ball 10 V 34
Offensive Player Out-of-Bounds 10 XV 38
Offensive Screen Out-of-Bounds 10 XIV 37
Offensive Three-Seconds 10 VI 34
Out-of-Bounds 10 I 32
Run With the Ball 10 II a 33
RULE SECTION ARTICLE PAGE
Striking the Ball—Leg,
Foot or Fist 10 IV 34
Swinging of Elbows 10 X 36
Offensive Three Seconds 10 VI 34
Thrower-In 10 III 33
Throw-In 8 III 28
Traveling 10 XIII 36


-A-
-1-

Official Rules

RULE NO. 1—COURT DIMENSIONS—EQUIPMENT

Section I—Court and Dimensions

a. The playing court shall be measured and marked as shown in the court diagram.
(See page A).
b. A free throw lane shall be marked at each end of the court with dimensions andmarkings as shown on the court diagram. All boundary lines are part of the lane; lane space marks and neutral zone marks are not. The areas identified by the lane space markings are 2″ by 8″ and the neutral zone marks are 12″ by 8″.
c. A free throw line shall be drawn (2″ wide) across each of the circles indicated in the court diagram. It shall be parallel to the endline and shall be 15′ from the plane of the fac of the backboard.
d. The three-point field goal area has parallel lines 36″ from the sidelines, extending 93 1/3″ from the baseline and an arc of 22′ 1 3/4″ from the middle of the basket which intersects the parallel lines.
e. Two hash marks shall be drawn on each sideline (2″ wide) perpendicular to the sideline and 28′ from each baseline. These hash marks (four total) shall extend 3′ onto the court.
f. One hash mark shall be drawn (2″ wide) perpendicular to the baseline on each side of the free throw lane lines. These hash marks (four total) shall be 3′ from the free throw lane line and extend 6″ onto the court.
g. Four hash marks shall be drawn (2″ wide) parallel to the baseline on each side of the free throw circle. These hash marks shall be 13′ from the baseline and 3′ from the free throw lane lines and shall be 6″ in length.
h. Two hash marks shall be drawn (2″ wide) perpendicular to the sideline, in front of the scorer’s table, and 4′ on each side of the midcourt line. This will designate the Substitution Box area.
i. A Restricted Area shall be marked with a half-circle 4′ from the center of the basket ring and then parallel to the lane line to the face of the backboard with a solid two-inch line.

Section II—Equipment

a. The backboard shall be a rectangle measuring 6′ horizontally and 3 1/2′ vertically. The front surface shall be flat and transparent.
b. A transparent backboard shall be marked with a 2″ white rectangle centered behind the ring. This rectangle shall have outside dimensions of 24″ horizontally and 18″ vertically.
c. Home management is required to have a spare board with supporting unit on hand for emergencies, and a steel tape or extension ruler and a level for use if necessary.
d. Each basket shall consist of a pressure-release WNBA approved metal safety ring 18″ in inside diameter with a white cord net 15″ to 18″ in length. The cord of the net shall not be less than 30 thread nor more than 120 thread and shall be constructed to check the ball momentarily as it passes through the basket.
e. Each basket ring shall be securely attached to the backboard with its upper edge 10′ above and parallel to the floor and equidistant from the vertical edges of the board. The nearest point of the inside edge of the ring shall be 6″ from the plane of the face of the board. The ring shall be painted orange.
f. (1) the ball shall be an officially approved WNBA ball with a weight not less than 18 ounces nor more than 20 ounces. The circumference of the ball shall be within a maximum of 29 inches and a minimum of 28.5 inches and between 7 ½ and 8 ½ pounds pressure.
(2) Six (6) balls must be made available to each team for pre-game warmup.
g. At least one electric light is to be placed behind the backboard, obvious to officials and synchronized to light-up when the horn sounds at the expiration of time for each period. The electric light is to be “red.”

RULE NO. 2—OFFICIALS AND THEIR DUTIES

Section I—The Game Officials

a. The game officials shall be a crew chief and two referees. They will be assisted by an official scorer and two trained timers. One timer will operate the game clock and the other will operate the shot clock. All officials shall be approved by the League Office.
b. The officials shall wear the uniform prescribed by the WNBA.

Section II—Duties of the Officials

a. The officials shall, prior to the start of the game, inspect and approve all equipment, including court, baskets, balls, backboards, timers and scorer’s equipment.
b. The officials shall not permit players to play with any type of jewelry.
c. The officials shall not permit any player to wear equipment which, in their judgment, is dangerous to other players. Any equipment which is of hard substance (casts, splints, guards and braces) must be padded or foam covered and have no exposed sharp or cutting edge. All the face masks and eye or nose protectors must conform and be approved by WNBA Basketball Operations, conform to the contour of the face and have no sharp or protruding edges.
d. The use of any foreign substance during games is strictly prohibited. A “foreign substance” is any substance that is applied during games to a player’s body, uniform or to any game equipment that is designed or intended to provide a player or team with a competitive advantage.
e. All equipment used must be appropriate for basketball. Equipment that is unnatural and designed to increase a player’s height or reach, or to gain an advantage, shall not be used.
f. The officials must check the game balls to see that they are properly inflated. The recommended ball pressure should be between 7½ and 8½ pounds.
g. The Crew Chief shall be the official in charge.
h. If a coach desires to discuss a rule or interpretation of a rule prior to the start of a game or between periods, it will be mandatory for the officials to ask the other coach to be present during the discussion. The same procedure shall be followed if the officials wish to discuss a game situation with either coach.
i. The designated official shall toss the ball at the start of the game. The Crew Chief shall decide whether or not a goal shall count if the officials disagree, and he/she shall decide matters upon which scorers and timers disagree.
j. All officials shall enter the court prior to the 15-minute mark on the game clock to observe the warm-up period and report to the league office any atypical situations; and to review scoring and timing procedures with table personnel.
k. Officials must meet with team captains prior to the start of the game.
l. Officials must report any atypical or unique incident to the Operations Department by e-mail. Flagrant, punching, fighting fouls or a team’s failure to have eight players to begin the game must also be reported.

Section III—Elastic Power

The officials shall have the power to make decisions on any point not specifically covered in the rules. The League Office will be advised of all such decisions at the earliest possible moment.

Section IV—Different Decisions By Officials

a. The Crew Chief shall have the authority to set aside or question decisions regarding a rule interpretation made by either of the other officials. b. If two officials give conflicting signals as to who caused the ball to go out-ofbounds, they will conference and reconstruct the play in an attempt to make the correct call. If no resolution is reached, a jump ball will be signaled between the two players involved at the nearest circle. If the two players cannot be identified, the jump ball shall be administered at the center circle between any two opponents in the game. If one official signals and another official clearly knows the call is incorrect, they should conference and the calling official may change the call on the information given. However, if both officials are adamant about their ruling, a jump ball should be held similar to above.
EXCEPTION: In the last two minutes of the fourth period and the last two minutes of overtime. (See Rule 13).
c. In the event that a violation and foul occur at the same time, the foul will take precedence.
d. Double Foul (See Rule 12-B—Section VI—f).
e. If the two officials differ on a block/charge foul involving the restricted area and/or lower defensive box, they will conference and share information in an attempt to make the correct call. If no resolution is reached it will be treated as a double foul (See Rule 12B—Section VI—f).
EXCEPTION: In the last two minutes of the fourth period and the last two minutes of overtime. (See Rule 13).

Section V—Time and Place for Decisions

a. The officials have the power to render decisions for infractions of rules committed inside or outside the boundary lines. This includes periods when the game may be stopped for any reason.
b. When a personal foul or violation occurs, an official will blow his/her whistle to terminate play. The whistle is the signal for the timer to stop the game clock. If a personal foul has occurred, the official will indicate the number of the offender to the official scorer, the type of foul committed and the number of free throws, if any, to be attempted or indicate
the spot of the throw-in.
If a violation has occurred the official will indicate: (1) the nature of the violation by giving the correct signal, (2) the number of the offender, if applicable, and (3) the direction in which the ball will be advanced.
c. When a team is entitled to a throw-in, an official shall clearly signal: (1) the act which caused the ball to become dead, (2) the spot of the throw-in, and (3) the team entitled to the throw-in, unless it follows a successful field goal or free throw.
d. When a whistle is erroneously sounded, whether the ball is in a possession or nonpossession status, it is an inadvertent whistle and shall be interpreted as a suspension-of-play.
e. An official may suspend play for any unusual circumstance. (See Rule 4— Section XIII).

Section VI—Correcting Errors

A. FREE THROWS
Officials may correct an error if a rule is inadvertently set aside and results in the following:
(1) A team not shooting a merited free throw that will remain in play.
EXCEPTION: If the offensive team scores or shoots earned free throws as a result of a personal foul prior to possession by the defensive team the error shall be ignored if more than 24 seconds have expired.
(2) A team not shooting a merited free throw that will not remain in play. The error shall be corrected, all play shall stand and play will resume from the point of interruption with the clocks remaining the same.
(3) A team shooting an unmerited free throw.
(4) Permitting the wrong player to attempt a free throw.
a. Officials shall be notified of a possible error at the first dead ball.
b. Errors which occur in the first or third periods must be discovered and rectified prior to the start of the next period.
c. Errors which occur in the second period must be discovered and the scorer’s table notified prior to the officials leaving the floor at the end of the period. The error(s) must be rectified prior to the start of the third period.
d. Errors which occur in the fourth period or overtime(s) must be discovered and rectified prior to the end of the period.
e. The ball is not in play on corrected free throw attempt(s). Play is resumed at the same spot and under the same conditions as would have prevailed had the error not been discovered.
f. All play that occurs is to be nullified if the error is discovered within a 24-second time period. The game clock shall be reset to the time that the error occurred.
EXCEPTION (1): Acts of unsportsmanlike conduct, flagrant fouls and points scored therefrom, shall not be nullified.
EXCEPTION (2): If the error to be corrected is for a free throw attempt, where there
is to be no line-up of players on the free throw lane line (technical foul, defensive threeseconds flagrant foul, punching foul, clear-path-to-the-basket foul and away from the play foul in last two minutes), the error shall be corrected, all play shall stand and play shall resume from the point of interruption with the clocks remaining the same.

B. LINEUP POSITIONS
In any jump ball situation, if the jumpers are lined up incorrectly and the error is discovered:
(1) After more than 24 seconds have elapsed, the teams will continue to shoot for that basket for the remainder of that half and/or overtime. If the error is discovered in the first half, teams will shoot at the proper basket as decided by the opening tap for the second half.
(2) If 24 seconds or less have elapsed, all play shall be nullified.
EXCEPTION: Acts of unsportsmanlike conduct, all flagrant fouls and points scored therefrom, shall not be nullified and play will resume from the original jump ball with players facing the proper direction.

C. THROW-IN
If the second, third or fourth period or any throw-in begins with the wrong team being awarded possession, or the teams facing in the wrong direction, and the error is discovered:
(1) After 24 seconds have elapsed, the error cannot be corrected.
(2) With 24 seconds or less having elapsed, all play shall be nullified.
EXCEPTION: Acts of unsportsmanlike conduct, all flagrant fouls, and points scored therefrom, shall not be nullified.

D. RECORD KEEPING
A record keeping error by the official scorer which involves the score, number of personal fouls and/or timeouts may be corrected by the officials at any time prior to the end of the fourth period. Any such error which occurs in overtime must be corrected prior to the end of that period.

Section VII—Duties of Scorers

a. The scorers shall record the field goals made, the free throws made and missed and hall keep a running summary of the points scored. They shall record the personal and technical fouls called on each player and shall notify the officials immediately when a sixth personal foul is called on any player. They shall record the timeouts charged to each team,
shall notify a team and its coach through an official whenever that team is granted its final (full or 20-second) timeout and shall notify the nearest official each time a team is granted a charged timeout in excess of the legal number. In case there is a question about an error in the scoring, the scorer shall check with the Crew Chief at once to find the discrepancy If the error cannot be found, the official shall accept the record of the Official Scorer, unless he/she has knowledge that forces him/her to decide otherwise.
b. The scorers shall keep a record of the names, numbers and positions of the players who are to start the game and of all substitutes who enter the game. When there is an infraction of the rules pertaining to substitutions or numbers of players, they shall notify the nearest official immediately if the ball is dead, or as soon as it becomes dead if it is in play when the infraction is discovered. The scorer shall mark the time at which players are disqualified by reason of receiving six personal fouls, so that it may be easy to ascertain the order in which the players are eligible to go back into the game in accordance with Rule
3—Section I.
c. The scorers shall use a horn or other device unlike that used by the officials or timers to signal the officials. This may be used when the ball is dead or in certain specified situations when the ball is in control of a given team.
d. When a player is disqualified from the game, or whenever a penalty free throw is being awarded, a buzzer, siren or some other clearly audible sound must be used by the scorer or timer to notify the game officials. It is the duty of the scorekeeper to be certain the officials have acknowledged the sixth personal foul buzzer and the penalty shot buzzer.
e. The scorer shall not signal the officials while the ball is in play, except to notify them of the necessity to correct an error.
f. Should the scorer sound the horn while the ball is in play, it shall be ignored by the
players on the court. The officials must use their judgment in stopping play to consult with the scorer’s table.
g. Scorers shall record on the scoreboard the number of team fouls up to a total of five, which will indicate that the team is in a penalty situation.
h. Scorers shall immediately record the name of the team which secures first possession of the game.

Section VIII—Duties of Timers

a. The timers shall note when each half is to start and shall notify the Crew Chief and both coaches five minutes before this time, or cause them to be notified at least five minutes before the half is to start. They shall signal the scorers one minute before starting time.
They shall record playing time and time of stoppages as provided in the rules. The Official Timer and the shot clock operator shall be provided with digital stop watches to be used with the timing of timeouts and in case the official game clock, shot clocks/game clocks located above the backboards fail to work properly.
b. At the beginning of the first period, any overtime period or whenever play is resumed by a jump ball, the game clock shall be started when the ball is legally tapped by either of the jumpers. The shot clock will be started when player possession of the ball is obtained. No time will be removed from the game clock and/or shot clock if the ball is not
legally touched before a violation.
c. If the game clock has been stopped and the ball is put in play by a throw-in, the game clock and the shot clock shall be started when the ball is legally touched by any player on the court. The starting of the game clock and the shot clock will be under the control of the Official Timer.
d. During an unsuccessful free throw attempt, the game clock will be started by the official timer when the ball is legally touched. The shot clock will be started when player possession of the ball is obtained.
e. The game clock shall be stopped at the expiration of time for each period and when an official signals timeout. For a charged timeout, the timer shall start a digital stopwatch and shall signal the official when it is time to resume play.
f. For a charged timeout, the timer shall start a stopwatch when signaled by an official and play will not resume until the timeout period has expired.
g. The game clock and the scoreboard will combine to cause a horn or buzzer to sound, automatically, when playing time for the period has expired. If the horn or buzzer fails to sound, or is not heard, the Official Timer shall use any other means to notify the officialsimmediately.
h. In a dead ball situation, if the clock shows :00.0, the period or game is considered to have ended although the horn may not have sounded.
EXCEPTION: See Rule 13.

RULE NO. 3—PLAYERS, SUBSTITUTES AND COACHES

Section I—Team

a. Each team shall consist of five players. A player is disqualified from the game when she receives her sixth personal foul. No team may be reduced to less than five players. If a player in the game receives her sixth personal foul and all substitutes have already been disqualified, said player shall remain in the game and shall be charged with a personal and team foul. A technical foul also shall be assessed against her team. All subsequent personal fouls, including offensive fouls, shall be treated similarly. All players who have six or more personal fouls and remain in the game shall be treated similarly.
b. In the event that there are only five eligible players remaining and one of these players is injured and must leave the game or is ejected, she must be replaced by the last player who was disqualified by reason of receiving six personal fouls. Each subsequent requirement to replace an injured or ejected player will be treated in this inverse order. Any such reentry into a game by a disqualified player shall be penalized by a technical foul. c. In the event that a player leaves the playing court while the ball is in play, play will continue until the next stoppage of play and the player will be replaced if she is not ready to return. No technical foul will be assessed, but the incident will be reviewed by the league office for a possible fine and/or suspension.
EXCEPTION: Rule 10—Section XV.

Section II—Starting Line-Ups

At least thirty (30) minutes before the game is scheduled to begin, the scorer shall be supplied with the name and number of each player who will start the game. Failure to comply with this provision shall be reported to the League Office.

Section III—The Captain

a. A team may have a captain and a co-captain numbering a maximum of two. The designated captain may be anyone on the squad who is in uniform, except a player-coach.
b. The designated captain is the only player who may ask an official about a rule interpretation during a regular or 20-second timeout charged to her team. She may not discuss a judgment decision.
c. If the designated captain continues to sit on the bench, she remains the captain for the entire game.
d. In the event that the captain is absent from the court and bench, her coach shall immediately designate a new captain.

Section IV—The Coach and Others

a. The coach’s position may be on or off the bench from the former substitution box line (closest to the coach’s bench) to the baseline. A coach is not permitted to cross the midcourt line and violators will be assessed an unsportsmanlike technical foul
immediately. All assistants and trainers must remain on the bench. Coaches and trainers are not permitted to go to the scorer’s table, for any reason, except during a dead ball.
b. During timeouts, the coach’s box extends from the baseline to the mid-court line and from the team bench to center court (imaginary line from rim to rim).
c. A player-coach, if permitted under WNBA regulations, will have no special privileges. She is to conduct herself in the same manner as any other player.
d. Any club personnel not seated on the bench must conduct themselves in a manner that would reflect favorably on the dignity of the game and the officials. Violations by any of the personnel indicated shall require a written report to the League Office for subsequent action.
e. The bench shall be occupied only by a league-approved head coach, two assistant coaches, players and a trainer. During an altercation the head and assistant coaches are permitted on the court as “peacemakers.”
f. If a player, coach or assistant coach is suspended from a game or games, he/she shall not at any time before, during or after such game or games appear in any part of the arena or stands where his/her team is playing. A player, coach or assistant coach who is ejected may only remain in the dressing room of his/her team during the remainder of the game, or leave the building. A violation of this rule shall result in a fine.

Section V—Substitutes

a. A substitute shall report to the scorer and position herself in the vicinity of the Substitution Box located in front of the scorer’s table. For purposes of this rule, the vicinity of the Substitution Box means the area from between the 28′ hash mark closest to the bench of the player’s team and the midcourt line. She shall inform the scorer whom she is going to replace. The scorer shall sound the horn to indicate a substitution. The horn does not have to be sounded if the substitution occurs between periods or during timeouts.
b. The substitute shall remain in the vicinity of the Substitution Box until she is beckoned onto the court by an official. If the ball is about to become live, the beckoning signal shall be withheld.
c. A substitute must be ready to enter the game when beckoned. No delays for removal of warm-up clothing will be permitted.
d. The substitute shall not replace a free throw shooter or a player involved in a jump ball unless dictated to do so by an injury or ejection. (EXCEPTION: Rule 6 -Section VI – b and Rule 9 -Section II – a – (2)). At no time may she be allowed to attempt a free throw awarded as a result of a technical foul.
e. A substitute shall be considered as being in the game when she is beckoned onto the court or recognized as being in the game by an official. Once a player is in the game, she cannot be removed until the ball is legally touched by a player on the court unless: (1) a personal or technical foul is called, (2) there is a change of possession, (3) a timeout is granted or (4) administration of infection control rule.
f. A substitute may be recalled from the scorer’s table prior to being beckoned onto the court by an official.
g. A player may be replaced and allowed to re-enter the game as a substitute during the same dead ball.
h. A player must be in the vicinity of the Substitution Box at the time a violation occurs if the throw-in is to be administered in the backcourt. If a substitute fails to meet this requirement, she may not enter the game until the next legal opportunity.
EXCEPTION: In the last two minutes of each period or overtime, a reasonable amount of time will be allowed for a substitution.
i. If a free throw(s) is awarded, substitutes are only permitted to enter the game prior to the final free throw attempt if the ball will remain in play or following the final free throw attempt if it will not remain in play unless necessitated by disqualification, injury, ejection or any other atypical situation.
j. No substitutes may enter the game after a successful field goal by either team, unlessmthe ball is dead due to a personal foul, technical foul, timeout, infection control or violation.
k. No substitutes are allowed to enter the game during an official’s suspension-of-play for (1) a delay-of-game warning, (2) retrieving an errant ball, (3) an inadvertent whistle, (4) instant replay review or (5) any other unusual circumstance.
EXCEPTIONS:
(1) A suspension of play for a player bleeding. See Comments on the Rules—N.
(2) A seriously-injured player. The player must be removed and opponent is permitted one substitution.
l. A substitute shall not be allowed to re-enter the game after being disqualified.
EXCEPTION: Rule 3—Section I-b.
m. Notification of all above infractions and ensuing procedures shall be in accordance with Rule 2—Section VII.

Section VI—Uniforms (Players Jerseys)


a. Each player shall be numbered on the back of her jersey with a number contrasting with the color of the shirt.
b. Each number must be no less than 1/2’’ width, and 6” height. Each player shall have her surname affixed to the back of her game jersey in letters at least 2″ in height. If a team has more than one player with the same surname, each such player’s first initial must appear before the surname on the back of the game jersey.
c. The home team shall wear light color jerseys and the visitors dark jerseys (unless otherwise approved by Basketball Operations Department). For neutral court games and doubleheaders, the second team named in the official schedule shall be regarded as the home team and shall wear the light colored jerseys.

RULE NO. 4—DEFINITIONS

Section I—Basket/Backboard

a. A team’s basket consists of the basket ring and net through which its players try to shoot the ball. The visiting team has the choice of baskets for the first half. The basket selected by the visiting team when it first enters onto the court shall be its basket for the first half.
b. The teams change baskets for the second half. All overtime periods are considered extensions of the second half.
c. Five sides of the backboard (front, two sides, bottom and top) are considered in play when contacted by the basketball. The back of the backboard and the area directly behind it are out-of-bounds.

Section II—Dribble

A dribble is movement of the ball, caused by a player in control, who throws or taps
the ball to the floor.
a. The dribble ends when the dribbler:
(1) Touches the ball simultaneously with both hands,
(2) Permits the ball to come to rest while she is in control of it,
(3) Tries for a field goal,
(4) Throws a pass,
(5) Touches the ball more than once while dribbling, before it touches the floor,
(6) Loses control, or
(7) Allows the ball to become dead.

Section III—Fouls

a. A common personal foul is illegal physical contact which occurs with an opponent after the ball has become live and before the horn sounds to end the period. If time expires before the personal foul occurs, the personal foul should be disregarded, unless it was unsportsmanlike.
EXCEPTION: If the foul is committed on or by a player in the act of shooting, and the shooter released the ball prior to the expiration of time on the game clock, then the foul should be administered in the same manner as with any similar play during the course of the game. See: Rule 13—Section II—b (2).
b. A technical foul is the penalty for unsportsmanlike conduct or violations by team members on the floor or seated on the bench.
c. A double foul is a situation in which any two opponents commit personal fouls at approximately the same time.
d. An offensive foul is illegal contact, committed by an offensive player, after the ball is live and there is team control.
e. A loose ball foul is illegal contact, after the ball is alive, when team control does not exist.
f. A flagrant foul is unnecessary and/or excessive contact committed by a player against an opponent, whether the ball is dead or alive.
g. A punching foul is a punch by a player which makes contact with an opponent, whether the ball is dead or alive.
h. An away-from-the-play foul is illegal contact by the defense (1) in the last two minutes of each period, and last two minutes of any overtime periods, which occurs deliberately away from the immediate area of offensive action, or (2) prior to the ball being released on a throw-in at any point during the entire game.

Section IV—Free Throw

A free throw is the privilege given a player to score one point by an unhindered attempt for the goal from a position directly behind the free throw line. This attempt must be made within 10 seconds.

Section V—Frontcourt/Backcourt

a. A team’s frontcourt consists of that part of the court between its endline and the nearer edge of the midcourt line, including the basket and inbounds part of the backboard.
b. A team’s backcourt consists of the entire midcourt line and the rest of the court to include the opponent’s basket and inbounds part of the backboard.
c. A ball being held by a player: (1) is in the frontcourt if neither the ball nor the player is touching the backcourt, (2) is in the backcourt if either the ball or the player is touching the backcourt.
d. A ball being dribbled is (1) in the frontcourt when the ball and both feet of the player are in the frontcourt, or (2) in the backcourt if the ball or either foot of the player is in the backcourt.
e. The ball is considered in the frontcourt once it has broken the plane of the midcourt line and is not in player control.
f. The team on the offense must bring the ball across the midcourt line within 8 seconds. EXCEPTION: (1) kicked ball, (2) punched ball, (3) personal or technical foul on the defensive team, (4) delay of game warning on the defensive team or (5) Infection control.
g. Frontcourt/backcourt status is not attained until a player with the ball has established a positive position in either half during (1) a jump ball, (2) a steal by a defensive player, (3) a throw-in in the last two minutes of the fourth period and last two minutes of any overtime period or (4) any time the ball is loose.

Section VI—Held Ball

A held ball occurs when two opponents have one or both hands firmly on the ball or anytime a defensive player touches the ball causing the offensive player to return to the floor with the ball in her continuous possession.
A held ball should not be called until both players have hands so firmly on the ball that neither can gain sole possession without undue roughness. If a player is lying or sitting on the floor, while in possession, she should have an opportunity to throw the ball, but a held ball should be called if there is danger of injury.

Section VII—Pivot

a. A pivot takes place when a player, who is holding the ball, steps once or more than once in any direction with the same foot, with the other foot (pivot foot) in contact with the floor.
b. If the player wishes to dribble after a pivot, the ball must be out of her hand before the pivot foot is raised off the floor. If the player raises her pivot off the floor, she must pass or attempt a field goal before the foot is returned to the floor.
If she fails to follow these guidelines, she has committed a traveling violation.

Section VIII—Traveling

Traveling is progressing in any direction while in possession of the ball, which is in excess of prescribed limits as noted in Rule 4—Section VII and Rule 10—Section XIII.

Section IX—Screen

A screen is the legal action of a player who, without causing undue contact, delays or prevents an opponent from reaching a desired position.

Section X—Field Goal Attempt

A field goal attempt is a player’s attempt to shoot the ball into her basket for a field goal. The act of shooting starts when, in the official’s judgment, the player has started her shooting motion and continues until the shooting motion ceases and she returns to a normal floor position. For jump shots, the shooting motion starts when the offensive player starts to bring the ball upward towards the basket. On drives to the basket or other moving shots, the shooting motion starts when the player gathers the ball and continues through with a shot (except during a “take-foul” situation when the game or shot clocks are not expiring, the shooting begins when the player’s shoulders start upward). It is not essential that the ball leave the shooter’s hand. Her arm(s) might be held so that she cannot actually make an attempt.
The term is also used to include the flight of the ball until it becomes dead or is touched by a player. A tap during a jump ball or rebound is not considered a field goal attempt.
However, anytime a live ball is in flight toward the rim from the playing court, the goal, if made, shall count, even if time expires or the official’s whistle sounds. The field goal will not be scored if time on the game clock expires before the ball leaves the player’s hand or the ball is in flight toward the rim.

Section XI—Throw-In

A throw-in is a method of putting the ball in play from out-of-bounds in accordance with Rule 8—Section III. The throw-in begins when the ball is given to and controlled by the player inbounding, or at her disposal, and ends when the ball is released.

Section XII—Last Two Minutes

When the game clock shows 2:00, the period is considered to be in the last two minutes of the period.

Section XIII—Suspension of Play

An official can suspend play for retrieving an errant ball, resetting the timing devices, delay-of-game warning, inadvertent whistle, instant replay, a seriously injured player, or any other unusual circumstance. During such a suspension, neither team is permitted to substitute and the defensive team may not be granted a timeout. Play shall be resumed at the point of interruption.
EXCEPTION:
(1) Suspension of play for a player bleeding. See Comments on Rules—N.
(2) Seriously-injured player. Player must be removed and opponent is permitted one substitution.

Section XIV—Point of Interruption

The Point of Interruption is where the ball is located when the whistle sounds.

Section XV—Team Control

A team is in control when a player is holding, dribbling or passing the ball. Team control ends when the defensive team deflects the ball or there is a field goal attempt.

Section XVI—Team Possession

A team is in possession when a player is holding, dribbling or passing the ball. Team possession ends when the defensive team gains possession or there is a field goal attempt which hits the rim.

Section XVII—Fumble

A player who is holding the ball and fumbles it out of her control may recover the ball.
If her pivot foot moves to recover the ball, she must then pass or shoot the ball. If she fumbles and recovers it without moving her pivot foot and before the ball touches the floor, she retains her status before the fumble.

RULE NO. 5—SCORING AND TIMING

Section I—Scoring

a. A legal field goal or free throw attempt shall be scored when a live ball from the playing area enters the basket from above and remains in or passes through the net.
b. A successful field goal attempt from the area on or inside the three-point field goal
line shall count two points.
c. A successful field goal attempt from the area outside the three-point field goal line shall count three points.
(1) The shooter must have at least one foot on the floor outside the three-point
field goal line prior to the attempt.
(2) The shooter may not be touching the floor on or inside the three-point field goal line.
(3) The shooter may contact the three-point field goal line, or land in the twopoint field goal area, after the ball is released.
d. A field goal accidentally scored in an opponent’s basket shall be added to the opponent’s score, credited to the opposing player nearest the player whose actions caused the ball to enter the basket.
e. It is a violation for a player to attempt a field goal at an opponent’s basket. The ball shall be awarded to the opposing team out-of-bounds at the free throw line extended.
f. A successful free throw attempt shall count one point.
g. An unsuccessful free throw attempt which is tapped into the basket shall count as two points and shall be credited to the player who tapped the ball in.
h. If there is a discrepancy in the score and it cannot be resolved, the running score shall be official.

Section II—Timing

a. All periods of regulation play in the WNBA will be ten minutes.
b. All overtime periods of play will be five minutes.
c. Fifteen minutes will be permitted between halves of all games.
d. 120 seconds will be permitted for mandatory timeouts and between the first and second periods, the third and fourth periods and before any overtime period. 60 seconds will be permitted for all other full timeouts.
e. A team is permitted a total of 30 seconds to replace a disqualified player.
f. The game is considered to be in the last two minutes when the game clock shows 2:00 or less time remaining in the period.
g. The public address operator is required to announce that there are two minutes remaining in each period.
h. The game clock shall be equipped to show tenths-of-a-second during the last minute of each period.

Section III—End of Period

a. Each period ends when time expires.
EXCEPTIONS:
(1) If a field goal attempt is in flight toward the basket, the period ends when the goal is made, missed or touched by an offensive player.
(2) If the official’s whistle sounds prior to the horn or: 00.0 on the clock, the period is not over and time must be added to the clock.
(3) If a field goal attempt is in flight toward the basket when the horn sounds ending a period, and it subsequently is touched by: (a) A defensive player, the goal, if successful, shall count; or (b) An offensive player, the period has ended.
(4) If a timeout request is made as time expires for a period, the period ends and the timeout shall not be granted.
(5) If there is a foul called on or by a player in the act of shooting, the period will end after the foul is penalized. (See Rule 13— Section II—b (ii)).
b. If the ball is dead and the game clock shows :00.0, the period has ended even though the horn may not have sounded.
EXCEPTION: See Rule 13—Section II—b (ii).

Section IV—Tie Score—Overtime

If the score is tied at the end of the fourth period, play shall resume in 120 seconds without change of baskets for any of the overtime periods required.

Section V—Stoppage of Timing Devices

a. The timing devices shall be stopped whenever the official’s whistle sounds.
b. The timing devices shall be stopped:
(1) During the last minute of the first, second and third periods following a successful field goal attempt.
(2) During the last two minutes of regulation play and/or last two minutes of overtime(s) following a successful field goal attempt.
c. Officials may not use official time to permit a player to change or repair equipment.

Section VI—Timeouts

A—Regular Timeouts—120/60 Seconds
a. There must be one (1) mandatory (120-second) timeout in the first and third periods and two (2) mandatory (120-second) timeouts in the second and fourth periods. Any regular timeout called by a team shall become the next mandatory timeout in that period (if any mandatory timeouts remain in that period) and shall be charged to the team that called the timeout. If neither team has called a regular timeout prior to 4:59 of the first or third period, it shall be mandatory for the Official Scorer to take a timeout at the first dead ball and charge it to neither team. If neither team has called a regular timeout prior to 5:59 of the
second or fourth period, it shall be mandatory for the Official Scorer to take a time-out at the first dead ball and charge it to the home team (or to neither team if the first regular timeout of the first or third period was charged to one of the teams). If no subsequent regular timeouts are taken prior to 2:59 of the second or fourth period, it shall be mandatory for the Official Scorer to take a timeout at the first dead ball and charge it to the team not previously charged (or to neither team if both previously charged timeouts were charged to a team).
b. Each team is entitled to two (2) regular timeouts per half during regulation play. One (1) of those timeouts will generally be charged as a mandatory timeout (unless, due to the timing of called timeouts, the other team is charged with two (2) mandatory timeouts in a half, in which case such team will not be charged with any mandatory timeouts in such half).
The first regular timeout in the first and third periods and the first two regular timeouts in the second and fourth periods shall be 120 seconds in length. All other regular timeouts shall be 60 seconds in length. Unused regular timeouts will not carry over from the first half to the second half.
c. In overtime periods, each team shall be allowed one (1) regular timeout plus one 20-second timeout. Unused regular timeouts from the second half will not be carried over into overtime. However, unused 20-second timeouts can be carried over, with a maximum of two 20-second timeouts per team permitted in any overtime period. There is no restriction as to when a team must call its timeouts during any overtime period.
d. A request for a timeout by a player in the game or the head coach shall be granted only when the ball is dead or in control of a player on the team making the request. A request at any other time shall be ignored.
No regular timeout shall be granted to the defensive team during an official’s suspension-of-play for (1) a delay-of-game warning, (2) retrieving an errant ball, (3) an inadvertent whistle or (4) any other unusual circumstance.
EXCEPTION: Suspension-of-play for Infection Control. See Comments on the
Rules—N.
B—20-Second Timeout
a. Each team is entitled to one (1) 20-second timeout per half. 20-second timeouts notused in the first half will carry over to the second half.
b. For the overtime period, each team is entitled to one additional 20-second timeout plus one unused 20-second timeout carried over from the second half for a maximum of two 20-second timeouts per team.
c. Coaches and players say “20-second timeout” when requesting this time. C—Regular and 20-Second Timeouts
a. A request for a timeout by a player in the game or the head coach shall be granted only when the ball is dead or in control of a player on the team making the request. A request at any other time shall be ignored.
b. During a timeout, all substitutions are legal for both teams.
c. This rule may be used for any reason, including a request for a rule interpretation.
If the correction is sustained, no timeout shall be charged.
d. If a timeout is charged to the offensive team during the last two minutes of the fourth
period and/or the last two minutes of any overtime period and
(1) the ball is out-of-bounds in the backcourt (except for a suspension of play after the team had advanced the ball), or
(2) after securing the ball from a rebound in the backcourt and prior to any advance of the ball, or
(3) after the offensive team secures the ball from a change of possession in the backcourt and prior to any advance of the ball, the timeout should be granted. Upon resumption of play, the team granted the timeout shall have the option of putting the ball into play at the 28′ hash mark in the frontcourt or at the designated spot out-of-bounds. If the ball is put into play at the hash mark, the ball may be passed into either the frontcourt or backcourt. If it is passed into the backcourt, the team will receive a new 8-second count.
However, once the ball is (1) thrown in from out-of-bounds, or (2) dribbled or passed after receiving it from a rebound or a change of possession, the timeout shall be granted, and, upon resumption of play, the ball shall be in-bounded on the sideline where play was interrupted. The option to advance is also not available following a timeout which is charged to neither team. In order for the option to be available following these conditions, a second timeout must be granted to the offensive team.
The time on the game clock and the shot clock shall remain as when the timeout was called.
e. If a 20-second timeout has been granted and a mandatory timeout by the same team is due, only the mandatory timeout will be charged. If the mandatory timeout is due the other team or neither team, the 20-second timeout will be charged to the calling team and the mandatory will follow immediately.
f. A timeout shall not be granted to the defensive team during an official’s suspensionof-play.
EXCEPTION: Suspension of play for Infection Control. See Comments on the Rules—N.
g. If a player is injured as a result of a player on the opposing team committing a flagrant foul or unsportsmanlike act, play will resume when playing conditions are safe and no timeout will be charged, unless a mandatory is due, as a result of any delay due to the player’s injury.
h. If a team calls a 20-second timeout because one of its players is injured and, at the expiration of the 20-second timeout limit, play is unable to resume due to that player’s injury, a full timeout will be charged to that team and the 20-second timeout returned.
EXCEPTION: If a team does not have any full timeouts remaining, only the 20-second timeout will be charged. Play will resume when playing conditions are safe.
i. If a 20-second timeout is requested and the team has none remaining, it shall be granted and charged as a full timeout.
j. Requests for a timeout in excess of the authorized number of combined regular and 20-second timeouts shall be granted and a technical foul shall be assessed. Following the timeout, the ball will be awarded to the opposing team and play shall resume with a throwin nearest the spot where play was interrupted.
k. If a team has no timeouts remaining and a player is injured and cannot be removed from the playing court during a stoppage of play, no excessive timeout will be charged and play will resume when playing conditions are safe.

Section VII—Timeout Requests

a. If an official, upon receiving a timeout request by the defensive team, inadvertently signals while the play is in progress, play shall be suspended and the team in possession shall put the ball in play immediately at the sideline nearest where the ball was when the signal was given. The game and shot clock shall remain the same.
b. If an official, upon receiving a timeout request from the defensive team, inadvertently signals for a timeout during the act of shooting but prior to the release of the ball on:
(1) a successful field goal or free throw attempt, the point(s) shall be scored; (2) an unsuccessful field goal attempt, the offensive team shall put the ball in play immediately at the sideline nearest where the ball was when the signal was given;
(3) an unsuccessful free throw attempt, the official shall rule disconcerting and award a substitute free throw.
c. If an official, upon receiving a timeout request, inadvertently signals for a timeout:
(1) after the ball is released during a successful field goal or free throw attempt, the points shall be scored, or (2) while the ball is loose or after the ball is released during an unsuccessful field goal or free throw attempt which will remain in play, play shall be resumed with a jump ball at the center circle between any two opponents in the game.
d. When a team is granted a regular or 20-second timeout, play shall not resume until the full 120, 60 or 20 seconds have elapsed. The throw-in shall be nearest the spot where play was suspended. The throw-in shall be on the sideline, if the ball was in play when the request was granted.
e. A player shall not be granted any timeout if both of her feet are in the air and any part of her body has broken the vertical plane of the boundary line. This rule also applies to the midcourt line except during throw-ins in the last two minutes of the fourth period and last two minutes of overtime periods.
f. A timeout can be granted only at the time of the request.

Section VIII—Time-In

a. After time has been out, the game clock shall be started:
(1) On a free throw that is unsuccessful and the ball continues in play, the game clock shall be started when the missed free throw is legally touched by any player.
(2) If play is resumed by a throw-in from out-of-bounds, the game clock shall be started when the ball is legally touched by any player within the playing area of the court.
(3) If play is resumed with a jump ball, the game clock shall be started when the ball is legally tapped.

RULE NO. 6—PUTTING BALL IN PLAY—LIVE/DEAD BALL

Section I—Start of Games/Periods and Others

a. The game and overtime(s) shall be started with a jump ball in the center circle.
b. The team which gains first possession of the game will put the ball into play at their opponent’s endline to begin the fourth period. The other team will put the ball into play at their opponent’s endline at the beginning of the second and third periods.
c. In putting the ball into play following a successful free throw, field goal or at the start of a period, the thrower-in may run along the endline or pass it to a teammate who isalso out-of-bounds at the endline.
d. After any dead ball, play shall be resumed by a jump ball, a throw-in or by placing the ball at the disposal of a free-thrower.
e. On the following infractions, the ball shall be awarded to the opposing team out-ofbounds on the nearest sideline at the free throw line extended:
(1) Three-seconds (offensive)
(2) Ball entering basket from below
(3) Illegal assist in scoring
(4) Free throw violation by the offensive team
(5) Flagrant foul-penalty (1) or (2)
(6) Punching foul
(7) Defensive three-seconds (offensive team retains possession)
(8) Jump ball violation at free throw circle
(9) Ball passing directly behind backboard
(10) Offensive basket interference
(11) Ball hitting horizontal basket support
(12) Loose ball fouls which occur inside the free throw line extended
(13) Five second back-to-the-basket violation
f. On the following infractions, the ball shall be awarded to the opposing team on the baseline at the nearest spot outside the three-second area extended:
(1) Ball out-of-bounds on baseline
(2) Ball hitting vertical basket support
(3) Defensive goaltending (all privileges remain)
(4) During a throw-in violation on the baseline
g. On the following infractions, the ball shall be awarded to the opposing team on the sideline at the nearest spot but no nearer to the baseline than the free throw line extended:
(1) Traveling
(2) Dribbling violations
(3) Swinging of elbows
(4) Shot clock violation
(5) Striking or kicking the ball in any situation except a throw-in
(6) Offensive screen set out-of-bounds
(7) Offensive player illegally out-of-bounds.
h. On the following infractions, the ball shall be awarded to the opposing team on the sideline one step into the backcourt.
(1) Eight-Second violation
(2) Backcourt violation
i. If the ball is kicked or punched during any throw-in, the ball will be returned to the original throw-in spot with all privileges, if any, remaining.
j. Following a regular or 20-second timeout that was called while the ball was alive, the ball shall be awarded out-of-bounds on the sideline at the nearest spot upon resumption of play. For all other timeouts, play shall resume where it was interrupted.
EXCEPTION: Rule 5—Section VI—c—d.
k. On a violation which requires putting the ball in play in the backcourt, the official will give the ball to the offensive player as soon as she is in a position out-of-bounds and ready to accept the ball.
EXCEPTION: In the last two minutes of each period or overtime, a reasonable amount of time shall be allowed for a substitution.
l. On any play where the ball goes out-of-bounds on the sideline, the ball shall be awarded to the opposing team at that spot.

Section II—Live Ball

a. The ball becomes live when:
(1) It is tossed by an official on any jump ball,
(2) It is at the disposal of the offensive player for a throw-in,
(3) It is placed at the disposal of a free throw shooter.

Section III—Ball is Alive

a. The ball becomes alive when:
(1) It is legally tapped by one of the participants of a jump ball,
(2) It is released by the thrower-in,
(3) It is released by the free throw shooter on a free throw which will remain in play.

Section IV—Dead Ball

a. The ball becomes dead and/or remains dead when the following occurs:
(1) Official blows his/her whistle,
(2) Free throw which will not remain in play (free throw which will be followed by another free throw, technical, flagrant, etc.),
(3) Following a successful field goal or free throw that will remain in play, until player possession out-of-bounds. Contact which is NOT considered unsportsmanlike shall be ignored, (See Rule 12A—Section V—i),
(4) Time expires for the end of any period.
EXCEPTION: If a field goal attempt is in flight, the ball becomes dead when the goal is made, missed or touched by an offensive player.

Section V—Jump Balls in Center Circle

a. The ball shall be put into play in the center circle by a jump ball between any two
opponents:
(1) At the start of the game,
(2) At the start of each overtime period,
(3) A double free throw violation,
(4) Double foul during a loose ball,
(5) The ball becomes dead when neither team is in control and no field goal or infraction is involved,
(6) The ball comes to rest on the basket flange or becomes lodged between the basket ring and the backboard,
(7) A double foul which occurs as a result of a difference in opinion between officials,
(8) A suspension of play occurs during a loose ball,
(9) A fighting foul occurs during a loose ball,
(10) The officials are in doubt as to which team hit the ball out-of-bounds and the players involved cannot be identified.
b. In all cases above, the jump ball shall be between any two opponents in the game at that time. If injury, ejection or disqualification makes it necessary for any player to be replaced, her substitute may not participate in the jump ball.

Section VI—Other Jump Balls

a. The ball shall be put into play by a jump ball at the circle which is closest to the spot where:
(1) A held ball occurs
(2) A ball out-of-bounds caused by both teams occurs
(3) An official is in doubt as to who last touched the ball
b. The jump ball shall be between the two involved players unless injury or ejection precludes one of the jumpers from participation. If the injured player must leave the game or is ejected, the coach of the opposing team shall select from his/her opponent’s bench a player who will replace the injured or ejected player. The injured player will not be permitted to re-enter the game. If a player is removed for a concussion evaluation, her coach shall select one of the four remaining players in the game to participate in the jump and she may return to the game if she completes the evaluation pursuant to the WNBA Concussion Policy, and is deemed not to have a concussion.

Section VII—Restrictions Governing Jump Balls

a. Each jumper must have at least one foot on or inside that half of the jumping circle which is farthest from her own basket. Each jumper must have both feet within the
restraining circle.
b. The ball must be tapped by one or both of the players participating in the jump ball after it reaches its highest point. If the ball falls to the floor without being tapped by at least one of the jumpers, one of the officials off the ball shall whistle the ball dead and signal another toss.
c. Neither jumper may tap the tossed ball before it reaches its highest point.
d. Neither jumper may leave her half of the jumping circle until the ball has been tapped.
e. Neither jumper may catch the tossed or tapped ball until it touches one of the eight non-jumpers, the floor, the basket or the backboard.
f. Neither jumper is permitted to tap the ball more than twice on any jump ball.
g. The eight non-jumpers will remain outside the restraining circle until the ball has been tapped. Teammates may not occupy adjacent positions around the restraining circle if an opponent desires one of the positions. No player may position herself immediately behind an opponent on the restraining circle.
PENALTY for c., d., e., f., g.: Ball awarded out-of-bounds to the opponent.
h. Player position on the restraining circle is determined by the direction of a player’s basket. The player whose basket is nearest shall have first choice of position, with positions being alternated thereafter.

RULE NO. 7—SHOT CLOCK

Section I—Definition

The “shot clock” refers to the timing device that displays a countdown of the time within which the team possessing the ball must attempt a field goal. The shot clock shall start at 24 seconds unless otherwise provided in Rule 7.

Section II—Starting and Stopping of Shot Clock

a. The shot clock will start when a team gains new possession of a ball which is in play.
b. On a throw-in, the shot clock shall start when the ball is legally touched on the court by a player.
c. Following a jump ball or missed free throw, the shot clock shall start when next possession is obtained.
d. A team must attempt a field goal prior to the expiration of the shot clock. To constitute a legal field goal attempt, the following conditions must be complied with:
(1) The ball must leave the player’s hand prior to the expiration of the shot clock.
(2) After leaving the player’s hand(s), the ball must make contact with the basket ring.
e. A team is considered in possession of the ball when holding, passing or dribbling.
The team is considered in possession of the ball even though the ball has been batted away but the opponent has not gained possession.
f. Team possession ends when:
(1) The ball hits the rim of the offensive team.
(2) The opponent gains possession.
g. If a ball is touched by a defensive player who does not gain possession of the ball, the shot clock shall continue to run.
h. If a defensive player is last to touch the ball before going out-of-bounds or entering the basket ring from below, the shot clock is stopped and the offensive team shall be awarded the ball.
The offensive team shall have only the unexpired time remaining on the shot clock in which to attempt a field goal. If the shot clock reads 0, a shot clock violation has occurred, even though the horn may not have sounded.
i. If during any period there are 24 seconds OR LESS left to play in the period, the shot clock shall not function following a change of possession; provided, however, the shot clock shall be reactivated and reset to 14 seconds when any of the situations described i Section IV—e below occur.
j. If an official inadvertently blows his/her whistle and the shot clock buzzer sounds while the ball is in the air, play shall be suspended and play resumed by a jump ball between any two opponents at the center circle, if the shot hits the rim and is unsuccessful. If the shot does not hit the rim a shot clock violation has occurred. If the shot is successful, the goal shall count, and the ball shall be inbounded as after any successful field goal. It should be noted that even though the official blows his/her whistle, all provisions of the above rule apply.
k. If there is a question whether or not an attempt to score has been made within the 24 seconds allowed, the final decision shall be made by the officials. See Rule—13— Section I—a (8)
l. Whenever the shot clock reads 0 and the ball is dead for any reason other than defensive three-second violation, a kicking violation, punched ball violation, personal foul or a technical foul by the defensive team, a shot clock violation has occurred.

Section III—Putting Ball In Play After Violation

If a team fails to attempt a field goal within the time allotted, a shot clock violation shall be called. The ball is awarded to the defensive team on the sideline nearest the spot where play was suspended, but no nearer to the baseline than the free throw line extended.

Section IV—Resetting Shot Clock

a. The shot clock shall be reset when a special situation occurs which warrants such action.
b. The shot clock is never reset on the following:
(1) Defensive player is the last to touch the ball before going out-of-bounds or entering the basket ring from below.
(2) Technical fouls or delay-of-game warning on the offensive team.
(3) Jump ball is re-tossed as the result of a poor toss, double violation or correctable error.
(4) Suspension-of-play (except for infection control).
(5) Field goal attempt which fails to touch the rim.
(6) Jump balls which are a result of a held ball caused by the defense.
c. The shot clock shall be reset to 24 seconds anytime the following occurs:
(1) Change of possession.
(2) Personal foul where the ball is being inbounded in the backcourt.
(3) Jump balls which are not the result of a held ball caused by the defense.
(4) Violation where ball is being inbounded in the backcourt.
(5) Ball from the playing court contacting the basket ring of the team which is in possession.
EXCEPTION: Rule 7—Section IV—e.
(6) All flagrant and punching fouls.
d. The shot clock shall remain the same as when play was interrupted or reset to 14 seconds, whichever is greater, anytime the following occurs:
(1) Personal foul by the defense where the ball is being inbounded in the frontcourt.
(2) Defensive three-second violation.
(3) Technical foul and/or delay-of-game warnings on the defensive team.
(4) Kicked or punched ball by the defensive team with the ball being inbounded in the offensive team’s frontcourt.
(5) Infection control.
(6) Jump balls retained by the offensive team as the result of any violation by the defensive team during a jump ball which results in a frontcourt throw-in.
e. The shot clock shall be reset to 14 seconds anytime the following occurs:
(1) The offensive team is the first to gain possession of an unsuccessful free throw which remains in play, or field goal attempt, that contacts the basket ring.
(2) A loose ball foul is called on the defensive team during an unsuccessful free throw which remains in play, or field goal attempt, that contacts the basket ring.
(3) The offensive team is the first to gain possession anytime a live ball from the playing court contacts their basket ring.

RULE NO. 8—OUT-OF-BOUNDS AND THROW-IN

Section I—Player

The player is out-of-bounds when she touches the floor or any object on or outside boundary. For location of a player in the air, her position is that from which she last touched the floor. The last part of the foot/feet which is in contact with the floor on her last step prior to jumping over the midcourt line or three-point line shall determine her location.

Section II—Ball

a. The ball is out-of-bounds when it touches a player who is out-of-bounds or any other person, the floor, or any object on, above or outside of a boundary or the supports or back of the backboard.
b. Any ball that rebounds or passes directly behind the backboard, in any direction, or enters the cylinder from below is considered out-of-bounds.
c. The ball is caused to go out-of-bounds by the last player to touch it (including by touching the player’s hair or uniform) before it goes out, provided it is out-of-bounds
because of touching something other than a player. If the ball is out-of-bounds because of touching a player who is on or outside a boundary, such player caused it to go out. If a player has her hand in contact with the ball and an opponent hits that part of the hand causing the ball to go out-of-bounds, the team whose player had her hand on the ball will retain possession.
d. If the ball goes out-of-bounds and was last touched simultaneously by two opponents, both of whom are inbounds or out-of-bounds, or if the official is in doubt as to
who last touched the ball, or if the officials disagree, play shall be resumed by a jump ball between the two involved players in the nearest restraining circle.
EXCEPTION: Rule 6—Section V—a (10) and Rule 13—Section I— a (7).
e. If the ball is interfered with by an opponent seated on the bench or standing on the sideline (Rule 12A—Section II—a (7)), it shall be awarded to the offended team out-ofbounds nearest the spot of the violation.
Section III—The Throw-In
a. The throw-in starts when the ball is at the disposal of a player entitled to the throwin. She shall release the ball inbounds within 5 seconds from the time the throw-in starts.
Until the passed ball has crossed the plane of the boundary, no player shall have any part of her person over the boundary line and teammates shall not occupy positions parallel or adjacent to the baseline if an opponent desires one of those positions. The defensive player shall have the right to be between her opponent and the basket.
b. On a throw-in which goes out-of-bounds and is not touched by a player in the game, the ball is returned to the original throw-in spot.
c. After a score, field goal or free throw, the latter coming as the result of a personal foul, any player of the team not credited with the score shall put the ball into play from any point out-of-bounds at the endline of the court where the point(s) were scored. She may pass the ball to a teammate behind the endline; however, the five-second throw-in rule applies. This rule also applies to the player of the team with possession at the start of the second, third and fourth periods.
d. After a free throw violation by the shooter or her teammate, the throw-in is made from out-of-bounds on either side of the free throw line extended.
e. Any ball out-of-bounds in a team’s frontcourt cannot be passed into the backcourt. On all backcourt and midcourt violations, the ball shall be awarded to the opposing team on the sideline one step into the backcourt, and may be passed anywhere (frontcourt or backcourt) on the court.
EXCEPTION: During the last two minutes of the fourth period and the last two minutes of any overtime period, the ball may be passed anywhere (frontcourt or backcourt)
on the court. However, if the ball is thrown into the frontcourt and an offensive player on the court fails to control the ball and causes it to go into the backcourt, her team may not be the first to touch the ball.

f. A throw-in which touches the floor, or any object on or outside the boundary line, or touches anything above the playing surface is a violation. The ball must be thrown
directly inbounds.
EXCEPTION: Rule 8—Section II—c.
PENALTY: Violation of this rule is loss of possession, and the ball must be inbounded at the previous spot of the throw-in. RULE NO. 9—FREE THROWS AND PENALTIES

Section I—Positions and Violations

a. When a free throw is awarded, an official shall put the ball in play by delivering it to the free throw shooter. The shooter shall be above the free throw line and within the
upper half of the free throw circle. She shall attempt the free throw within 10 seconds of controlling the ball in such a way that the ball enters the basket or touches the ring.
PENALTY: If there is a violation and the free throw attempt is to remain in play, the opposing team shall inbound on either sideline at the free throw line extended. If both teams commit a violation during this free throw, a jump ball shall be administered at midcourt between any two opponents in the game. If the opponent’s violation is disconcertion, then a substitute free throw shall be awarded.
If there is a violation and the free throw attempt is not to remain in play, then play will continue from that point. If an opponent also commits a violation (double violation), then play will also continue from that point. If the opponent’s violation is disconcertion, then a substitute free throw shall be awarded.
b. The free throw shooter may not step over the plane of the free throw line until the ball touches the basket ring, backboard or the free throw ends.
PENALTY: This is a violation by the shooter on all free throw attempts and no point can be scored. If there is a violation and the free throw attempt is to remain in play, the opposing team shall inbound on either sideline at the free throw line extended. If an opponent also commits a violation (double violation) during this free throw, a jump ball shall be administered at midcourt between any two opponents in the game.
If there is a violation and the free throw attempt is not to remain in play, then play will continue from that point. If an opponent also commits a violation (double violation), then play will also continue from that point.
c. The free throw shooter shall not purposely fake a free throw attempt.
PENALTY: This is a violation by the shooter on all free throw attempts and a double violation should not be called if an opponent violates any free throw rules.
If the free throw attempt is to remain in play, the opposing team shall inbound on either sideline at the free throw line extended.
If the free throw attempt is not to remain in play, then play will continue from that point.
d. During a free throw attempt for a common foul, each of the spaces nearest the endline must be occupied by an opponent of the free throw shooter. Teammates of the free throw shooter must occupy the next adjacent spaces on each side. Only one of the third spaces may be occupied by an opponent of the free throw shooter. It is not mandatory that either of the third spaces be occupied by an opponent but may not be occupied by a teammate. If there is a discrepancy, teammates of the free throw shooter will occupy the spaces first.
Players occupying lane spaces may not extend themselves over their lane spaces in front of an opponent or be touching the lane line or floor inside the line when the ball is released by the shooter. They may not vacate their lane space more than 3′ from the lane line before the ball is released.
Players not occupying lane spaces must remain on the court behind the three point line above the free throw line extended and may not be touching the line or the floor inside the line when the ball is released.
PENALTY: If the free throw attempt is to remain in play and a teammate of the shooter violates, no point can be scored and the opposing team will inbound on either sideline at the free throw line extended. If an opponent violates, the shooter shall receive a substitute free throw if her attempt is unsuccessful but shall be ignored if the attempt is successful. If a teammate and opponent both violate, a jump ball shall be administered at midcourt between any two opponents in the game.
If the free throw attempt is not to remain in play, no violation can occur regardless of which player or players violate since no advantage is gained unless there is a disconcertion violation by an opponent to which a substitute free throw will be awarded.
e. If the ball is to become dead after the last free throw attempt, players shall not occupy positions along the free throw lanes. All players must remain behind the three point line above the free throw line extended until the ball is released.
PENALTY: No violations can occur regardless of which player or players violate since no advantage is gained unless there is a disconcertion violation by an opponent to which a substitute free throw will be awarded.
f. During all free throw attempts, no opponent in the game shall disconcert the shooter once the ball is placed at her disposal. The following are acts of disconcertion:
(1) Raising her arms when positioned on the lane line on a free throw which will not remain in play;
(2) Waving her arms or making a sudden movement when in the visual field of the shooter during any free throw attempt;
(3) Talking to the free throw shooter or talking in a loud disruptive manner during any free throw attempt; or
(4) Entering the lane and continuing to move during any free throw attempt.
PENALTY: No penalty is assessed if the free throw is successful. A substitute free throw will be administered if the attempt is unsuccessful.
g. A player shall not touch the ball or the basket ring when the ball is using the basket ring as its lower base nor touch the ball while it is in the imaginary cylinder above the ring after touching the basket ring or backboard.
PENALTY: If the free throw attempt is to remain in play and a teammate of the shooter violates, no point can be scored and the opposing team will inbound on either sideline at the free throw line extended. If an opponent violates, one point shall be scored and play will continue as after any successful free throw with the official administering the throw-in.
If the free throw attempt is not to remain in play, no point can be scored if the violation is by a teammate and the shooter will attempt her next free throw. One point shall be scored if the violation is by an opponent and the shooter will attempt her next free throw.
h. No player shall touch the ball before it touches the basket ring or backboard.
PENALTY: If the free throw attempt is to remain in play and a teammate of the shooter violates, no point can be scored and the opposing team will inbound on either sideline at the free throw line extended. If an opponent violates, one point shall be scored and an additional
free throw shall be awarded the same shooter.
If the free throw attempt is not to remain in play, no point can be scored if the violation is by a teammate and the shooter will attempt her next free throw. One point shall be scored if the violation is by an opponent and the shooter will attempt her next free throw.
i. During all free throw attempts, if an official suspends play before the free throw attempt is released, no violations can occur.

Section II—Shooting of Free Throw

a. The free throw(s) awarded because of a personal foul shall be attempted by the offended player.
EXCEPTIONS:
(1) If the offended player is injured, other than as a result of a flagrant foul or unsportsmanlike conduct, or is ejected from the game and cannot attempt the
awarded free throw(s), the opposing coach shall select, from the opponent’s bench, the replacement player. That player will attempt the free throw(s) and the
injured player will not be permitted to re-enter the game. The substitute must remain in the game until the ball is legally touched by a player on the court.
EXCEPTION: Rule 3—Section V—e.
(2) If the offended player is injured and unable to attempt the awarded free throw(s) as a result of a flagrant foul-penalty (1) and/or as a result of a medical
determination that a player must undergo a concussion evaluation, her coach may designate any player in the game at that time to attempt the free throw(s).
The injured player will not be permitted to re-enter the game; except that the player will be permitted to reenter if she was removed for a concussion evaluation,
completed the evaluation required pursuant to the WNBA Concussion Policy, and is deemed not to have a concussion.
(3) If the offended player is injured and unable to attempt the awarded free throw(s) due to any unsportsmanlike act, her coach may designate any eligible
member of the squad to attempt the free throw(s). The injured player will be permitted to re-enter the game.
(4) If the offended player is disqualified and unable to attempt the awarded free throw(s), her coach shall designate an eligible substitute from the bench. That
substitute will attempt the free throw(s) and cannot be removed until the ball is legally touched by a player on the court.
EXCEPTION: Rule 3—Section V—e.
(5) Away from play foul—Rule 12B—Section X—a(1).
b. A free throw attempt, personal or technical, shall be illegal if an official does not handle the ball.
c. If multiple free throws are awarded, all those which remain must be attempted, if the first and/or second attempt is nullified by an offensive player’s violation.
d. If a timeout is granted prior to a free throw attempt, the free throw will be attempted following the timeout.

Section III—Next Play

After a successful free throw which is not followed by another free throw, the ball shall be put into play by a throw-in, as after any successful field goal.
EXCEPTION: After a free throw for a foul which occurs during a dead ball which immediately precedes any period, the ball shall be put into play by the team entitled to the
throw-in in the period which follows. (See Rule 6—Section I—b). This includes flagrant and punching fouls.

RULE NO. 10—VIOLATIONS AND PENALTIES

Section I—Out-of-Bounds

a. A player shall not cause the ball to go out-of-bounds.
PENALTY: Loss of ball. The ball is awarded to the opposing team at the boundary line nearest the spot of the violation.
EXCEPTION: On a throw-in which goes out-of-bounds and is not touched by a player
in the game, the ball is returned to the original throw-in spot.
Section II—Dribble
a. A player shall not run with the ball without dribbling it.
b. A player in control of a dribble who steps on or outside a boundary line, even though not touching the ball while on or outside that boundary line, shall not be allowed to return inbounds and continue her dribble. She may not be the first player to touch the ball after she has re-established a position inbounds.
c. A player may not dribble a second time after she has voluntarily ended her first dribble.
d. A player who is dribbling may not put any part of her hand under the ball and (1) carry it from one point to another or (2) bring it to a pause and then continue to dribble
again.
e. A player may dribble a second time if she lost control of the ball because of:
(1) A field goal attempt at her basket, provided the ball touches the backboard or basket ring;
(2) An opponent touching the ball;
(3) A pass or fumble which touches her backboard, basket ring or is touched by another player.
PENALTY: Loss of ball. Ball is awarded to the opposing team on the sideline nearest the spot of the violation but no nearer to the baseline than the free throw line extended.

Section III—Thrower-in

A thrower-in shall not (1) carry the ball onto the court; (2) fail to release the ball within 5 seconds; (3) touch it on the court before it has touched another player; (4) leave the designated throw-in spot which is one step to her left or right; (5) throw the ball so that it enters the basket before touching anyone on the court; (6) step on the court over the boundary line before the ball is released; (7) throw the ball to go out-of-bounds without being touched by a player in the game; (8) exit the playing surface to gain an advantage on a throw-in; or (9) hand the ball to a player on the court.
EXCEPTION: After a field goal or free throw as a result of a personal foul or the start of a period, the thrower-in may run the endline or pass to a teammate behind the endline.
PENALTY: Loss of ball. The ball is awarded to the opponent at the original spot of the throw-in.

Section IV—Striking the Ball

a. A player shall not kick the ball or strike it with the fist.
b. Kicking the ball or striking it with any part of the leg is a violation when it is an intentional act. The ball accidentally striking the foot, the leg or fist is not a violation.
c. A player may not use any part of her leg to intentionally move or secure the ball.
PENALTY:
(1) If the violation is by the offense, the ball is awarded to the opposing team on the sideline nearest the spot of the violation but no nearer the baseline than the
free throw line extended.
(2) If the violation is by the defense while the ball is in play, the offensive team retains possession of the ball at the sideline nearest the spot of the violation but
no nearer the baseline than the free throw line extended.
(3) If the violation occurs during a throw-in, the opposing team retains possession at the spot of the original throw-in with all privileges, if any, remaining.

Section V—Jump Ball

a. A player shall not violate the jump ball rule (Rule 6—Section VII).
b. During a jump ball, a personal foul committed prior to either team obtaining possession shall be ruled a “loose ball” foul.
If the violation or foul occurs prior to the ball being legally tapped, neither the game clock nor shot clock shall be started.
PENALTY:
(1) In (a.) above, the ball is awarded to the opponent on the sideline nearest the spot of the violation.
(2) In (a.) above, if there is a violation by each team, or if the official makes a bad toss, the toss shall be repeated with the same jumpers.
(3) In (b.) above, free throws may or may not be awarded, consistent with whether the penalty is in effect (Rule 12B—Section VIII).

Section VI—Offensive Three-Second Rule

a. An offensive player shall not remain for more than three seconds in that part of her free throw lane between the endline and extended 4′ (imaginary) off the court and the
farther edge of the free throw line while the ball is in control of her team.
b. Allowance may be made for a player who, having been in this area for less than three seconds, is in the act of shooting at the end of the third second. Under these
conditions, the three-second count is discontinued while her continuous motion is toward the basket. If that continuous motion ceases, the previous three-second count is continued.
This is also true if it is imminent the offensive player will exit this area.
c. The three-second count shall not begin until the ball is in control in the offensive team’s frontcourt. No violation can occur if the ball is batted away by an opponent.
PENALTY: Loss of ball. The ball is awarded to the opposing team at the sideline at the free throw line extended.

Section VII—Defensive Three-Second Rule

a. The count starts when the offensive team is in control of the ball in the frontcourt. b. Any defensive player, who is positioned in the 16-foot lane or the area extending
four feet past the lane endline, must be actively guarding an opponent within three seconds.
Actively guarding means being within arm’s-length of an offensive player and in a guarding position.
c. Any defensive player may play any offensive player. The defenders may doubleteam any player.
d. The defensive three-second count is suspended when: (1) a player is in the act of shooting, (2) there is a loss of team control, (3) the defender is actively guarding an
opponent, (4) the defender completely clears the 16-foot lane or (5) it is imminent the defender will become legal.
e. If the defender is guarding the player with the ball, she may be located in the 16-
foot lane. This defender is not required to be in an actively guarding/arms-distance position.
If another defender actively guards the player with the ball, the original defender must actively guard an opponent or exit the 16-foot lane. Once the offensive player passes the ball, the defender must actively guard an opponent or exit the 16-foot lane.
PENALTY: A technical foul shall be assessed. The offensive team retains possession on the sideline at the free throw line extended nearest the point of interruption. The shot clock shall remain the same as when play was interrupted or reset to 14 seconds, whichever is greater.
If a violation is whistled during a successful field goal attempt, the violation shall be ignored and play shall resume as after any successful basket.

Section VIII—Eight-Second Rule

A team shall not be in continuous possession of a ball which is in its backcourt for more than eight consecutive seconds.
EXCEPTION (1): A new eight seconds is awarded if the defense: (a) kicks or punches the ball, (b) is assessed a personal or technical foul, or (c) is issued a delay of game warning.
EXCEPTION (2): A new eight seconds is awarded: (1) if play is suspended to administer Comments on the Rules—N—Infection Control, (2) when a team gains control of a jump ball in the backcourt, or (3) during a frontcourt throw-in into the backcourt in the last two minutes of the fourth period and last two minutes of any overtime period.
PENALTY: Loss of ball. The ball shall be awarded to the opposing team on the sideline one step into the backcourt.

Section IX—Ball in Backcourt

a. A player shall not be the first to touch a ball which she or a teammate has caused to go from frontcourt to backcourt while her team was in control of the ball.
EXCEPTION: Rule 8—Section III—e (EXCEPTION).
b. During a jump ball, a try for a goal, or a situation in which a player taps a loose ball away from a congested area, as during rebounding, in an attempt to get the ball out where player control may be secured, the ball is not in control of either team. Hence, the restriction on first touching does not apply.
PENALTY: Loss of ball. The ball shall be awarded to the opposing team on the sideline one step into the backcourt.

Section X—Swinging of Elbows

A player shall not be allowed excessive and/or vigorous swinging of the elbows in a swinging motion (no contact) when a defensive player is nearby and the offensive player has the ball.
PENALTY: Loss of ball. The ball is awarded to the opposing team at the sideline nearest the spot of the violation, but no nearer the baseline than the free throw line
extended.

Section XI—Entering Basket From Below

A player shall not cause any part of the ball to rise above the rim level, within the cylinder, from below.
PENALTY: Loss of ball. The ball is awarded to the opposing team at the sideline at the free throw line extended.

Section XII—Illegal Assist in Scoring

a. A player may not assist herself in an attempt to score by using any part of the rim, net, backboard or basket support to lift, hold or raise herself.
b. A player may not assist a teammate to gain height while attempting to score.
PENALTY: Loss of ball. The ball is awarded to the opposing team at the sideline at the free throw line extended.

Section XIII—Traveling

a. A player who receives the ball while standing still may pivot, using either foot as the pivot foot.
b. A player who receives the ball while she is progressing or upon completion of a dribble, may take two steps in coming to a stop, passing or shooting the ball. A player who receives the ball while she is progressing must release the ball to start her dribble before her second step.
The first step occurs when a foot, or both feet, touch the floor after gaining control of the ball.
The second step occurs after the first step when the other foot touches the floor, or both feet touch the floor simultaneously.
A player who comes to a stop on step one when both feet are on the floor or touch the floor simultaneously may pivot using either foot as her pivot. If she jumps with both feet she must release the ball before either foot touches the floor.
A player who lands with one foot first may only pivot using that foot.
A progressing player who jumps off one foot on the first step may land with both feet simultaneously for the second step. In this situation, the player may not pivot with either foot and if one or both feet leave the floor the ball must be released before either returns to the floor.
c. In starting a dribble after (1) receiving the ball while standing still, or (2) coming to a legal stop, the ball must be out of the player’s hand before the pivot foot is raised off the floor.
d. If a player, with the ball in her possession, raises her pivot foot off the floor, she must pass or shoot before her pivot foot returns to the floor. If she drops the ball while in
the air, she may not be the first to touch the ball.
e. A player who falls to the floor while holding the ball, or while coming to a stop, may not gain an advantage by sliding.
f. A player who attempts a field goal may not be the first to touch the ball if it fails to touch the backboard, basket ring or another player.
g. A player may not be the first to touch her own pass unless the ball touches her backboard, basket ring or another player.
h. Upon ending her dribble or gaining control of the ball, a player may not touch the floor consecutively with the same foot (hop).
PENALTY: Loss of ball. The ball is awarded to the opponent at the sideline, nearest spot of the violation but no nearer the baseline than the free throw line extended.

Section XIV—Offensive Screen Out-of-Bounds

An offensive player shall not leave the playing area of the floor on the endline in the frontcourt for the purpose of setting a screen.
PENALTY: Loss of ball. The ball is awarded to the opponent at the point of interruption but no nearer to the baseline than the foul line extended

Section XV—Offensive Player Out-of-Bounds

An offensive player shall not leave the playing area of the court without returning immediately and cannot repeatedly leave and re-enter the court.
EXCEPTION: (1) injury, (2) inbounding the ball on a throw-in, and (3) any other unusual circumstance.
PENALTY: Loss of ball. The ball is awarded to the opposing team at the point of interruption but no nearer to the baseline than the foul line extended.

Section XVI—Five-Second Back-to-the-Basket Violation

An offensive player in her frontcourt below the free throw line extended shall not be permitted to dribble with her back or side to the basket for more than five seconds.
The count ends when (1) the player picks up the ball, (2) the player dribbles above the free throw line extended or (3) a defensive player deflects the ball away.
PENALTY: Loss of ball. The ball is awarded to the opposing team out-of-bounds on the nearest sideline at the free throw line extended.

RULE NO. 11—BASKET INTERFERENCE—GOALTENDING

Section I—A Player Shall Not:

a. Touch the ball or the basket ring when the ball is sitting or rolling on the ring and using the basket ring as its lower base or hang on the rim while the ball is passing through.
EXCEPTION: If a player near her own basket has her hand(s) legally in contact with the ball, it is not a violation if her contact with the ball continues after the ball enters the cylinder, or if, in such action, she touches the basket.
b. Touch any ball from within the playing area when it is above the basket ring and within the imaginary cylinder.
c. During a field goal attempt, touch a ball, which has a chance to score, after it has touched any part of the backboard above ring level, whether the ball is considered on its upward or downward flight.
d. During a field goal attempt, touch a ball, which has a chance to score, after it has touched the backboard below the ring level and while the ball is on its upward flight.
e. Trap the ball against the face of the backboard after it has been released. (To be a trapped ball, three elements must exist simultaneously. The hand, the ball and the backboard must all occur at the same time. A batted ball against the backboard is not a trapped ball.)
f. Touch any ball from within the playing area that is on its downward flight with an opportunity to score. This is considered to be a “field goal attempt” or trying for a goal.
g. Touch the ball at any time with a hand which is through the basket ring.
h. Vibrate the rim, net or backboard so as to cause the ball to make an unnatural
bounce, or bend or move the rim to an off-center position when the ball is touching the rim or passing through.
i. Touch the rim, net or ball while the ball is in the net preventing it from clearing the basket.
PENALTY: If the violation is at the opponent’s basket, the offended team is awarded two points if the attempt is from the two-point zone and three points if it is from the threepoint zone. The crediting of the score and subsequent procedure is the same as if the awarded score has resulted from the ball having gone through the basket, except that the official shall hand the ball to a player of the team entitled to the throw-in. If the violation is at a team’s own basket, no points can be scored and the ball is awarded to the offended team at the free throw line extended on either sideline. If there is a violation by both teams,
no points can be scored and play shall be resumed by a jump ball between any two opponents in the game at the center circle.

RULE NO. 12—FOULS AND PENALTIES

A. Technical Foul

Section I—Excessive Timeouts

a. Requests for a timeout in excess of the authorized number shall be granted and a non-unsportsmanlike technical foul shall be assessed. Following the timeout and free throw attempt, the ball will be awarded to the team which shot the free throw and play shall resume with a throw-in nearest the spot where play was interrupted.
b. If the excessive timeout is granted prior to free throw attempt(s), there will be no line-up for the remaining free throws and play shall resume with a throw-in at the point of interruption by the team which shot the technical foul.
c. If the excessive timeout is granted prior to a jump ball, the ball shall be awarded to the team shooting the technical foul at the point of interruption.

Section II—Delay-of-Game

a. A delay-of-game shall be called for:
(1) Preventing the ball from being promptly put into play.
(2) Interfering with the ball after a successful field goal or free throw.
(3) Failing to immediately pass the ball to the nearest official when a personal foul or violation is assessed.
(4) Touching the ball before the throw-in has been released.
(5) A defender crossing the boundary line prior to the ball being released on a throw-in.
(6) A team preventing play from commencing at any time.
(7) Any player, coach or trainer interfering with a ball which has crossed the boundary line (Rule 8—Section II—e).
(8) Any player entering the game when beckoned by an official with her shirt untucked.
(9) A free throw shooter venturing fully beyond the three-point line between attempts.
PENALTY: The first offense is a warning. A technical foul shall be assessed with each successive offense and charged to the team. An announcement will be made by the public address announcer. The shot clock shall remain the same or reset to 14, whichever is greater, if the violation is assessed against the defensive team. The offensive team shall be awarded a new eight seconds to advance the ball if it is in the backcourt. There is no change
in timing status if any of these violations are assessed against the offensive team. If repeated acts become a travesty, the head coach shall be notified that he/she is being held responsible.
EXCEPTION (5): In the last two minutes of the fourth period and last two minutes of any overtime period, a technical foul will be assessed if the defender crosses or breaks the plane of the boundary line within the designated throw-in spot when an offensive player is in a position to inbound and prior to the ball being released on a throw-in.

Section III—Number of Players

a. If the ball is put into play and remains in play with one team having six or more players on the court, a non-unsportsmanlike technical foul will be assessed on the team
with too many players and such team would lose possession if it had possession at the time the violation was discovered. Immediately following the free throw awarded for the technical foul, the team with the correct number of players will instruct the Crew Chief to:
(1) Resume play from the point in time when the technical foul was assessed, under the same conditions as would have prevailed had there been no error with
a throw-in, jump ball or foul shot, as appropriate. If the ball is to be put into play with a throw-in, the team who shot the free throw will be awarded possession
unless that team just scored and the error was discovered prior to the throw-in being released by the team with six or more players.
(2) nullify all play that occurred from the point in time when the ball was put into play with one team having six or more players on the court and ending when the
technical foul was assessed, reset the game and shot clock to the point in time when the ball was put into play, and if the ball as put into play by:
(i) A throw-in, the ball shall be returned to the original throw-in spot with the ball awarded to the team with the correct number of players, or
(ii) a missed free throw that remained in play, a jump ball shall be held at center court between any two players in the game, or
(iii) A jump ball, the ball shall be returned to the original jump ball spot and a jump ball held with the same two players.
EXCEPTION: Acts of unsportsmanlike conduct and all flagrant fouls, and points scored from any resulting free throws, shall not be nullified.
b. Other errors involving the wrong number of players at the start of play, four or less,
will be penalized with a non-unsportsmanlike technical foul and play shall resume from the point-of-interruption.
EXCEPTION to (a) and (b): If the violation occurs on (1) a free throw attempt which is to be followed by another free throw attempt, or (2) a free throw attempt that is not going to remain in play, (3) throw-in before the ball is released, (4) prior to a personal foul being assessed or (5) jump ball before the ball is released.

Section IV—Basket Ring, Backboard or Support

a. An offensive player who deliberately hangs on her basket ring, net, backboard or support during the game shall be assessed a non-unsportsmanlike technical foul.
b. A defensive player who deliberately gains or maintains height or hangs on her opponent’s basket ring, net, backboard or support, shall be assessed a non-unsportsmanlike technical foul. If she touches the ball during a field goal attempt, points shall be awarded consistent with the type of shot.
EXCEPTION: An offensive or defensive player may hang on the basket ring, backboard or support to prevent an injury to herself or another player, with no technical
foul assessed.
c. Should a defensive player deliberately hang on the basket ring, backboard or support to successfully touch a ball which is in possession of an opponent, a non-unsportsmanlike technical foul shall be assessed.

Section V—Conduct

a. An official may assess a technical foul, without prior warning, at any time. A technical foul(s) may be assessed to any player on the court or anyone seated on the bench
for conduct which, in the opinion of an official, is detrimental to the game. The technical foul must be charged to an individual. A technical foul cannot be assessed for physical contact when the ball becomes alive.
EXCEPTION: Fighting fouls and/or taunting with physical contact.
b. A maximum of two technicals for unsportsmanlike acts may be assessed to any player, coach or trainer. Any of these offenders may be ejected for committing only one
unsportsmanlike act, and they must be ejected for committing two unsportsmanlike acts.
c. A technical foul called for (1) delay of game, (2) coaches box violations, (3) defensive three-seconds, (4) having a team total of less or more than five players when the
ball becomes alive, (5) a player hanging on the basket ring or backboard, or (6) shattering the backboard or making the rim unplayable during the game (Comments on the Rules—
G) is not considered an act of unsportsmanlike conduct.
d. A technical foul shall be assessed for unsportsmanlike tactics such as:
(1) Disrespectfully addressing an official
(2) Physically contacting an official
(3) Overt actions indicating resentment to a call
(4) Use of profanity
(5) A coach entering onto the court without permission of an official
(6) A deliberately-thrown elbow or any attempted physical act with no contact involved
(7) Taunting
e. Cursing or blaspheming an official shall not be considered the only cause for imposing technical fouls. Running tirades, continuous criticism or griping may be
sufficient cause to assess a technical. Excessive misconduct shall result in ejection from the game.
f. Assessment of a technical foul shall be avoided whenever and wherever possible;
but, when necessary they are to be assessed without delay or procrastination. Once a player has been ejected or the game is over, technicals cannot be assessed regardless of the provocation. Any additional unsportsmanlike conduct shall be reported by e-mail
immediately to the League Office.
g. If a technical foul is assessed to a team following a personal foul on the same team, the free throw attempt for the technical foul shall be administered first.
h. The ball shall be awarded to the team which had possession at the time the technical foul was assessed, whether the free throw attempt is successful or not. Play shall be resumed by a throw-in nearest the spot where play was interrupted.
EXCEPTION: Rule 12A—Section I and Rule 12A—Section III.
i. Anyone guilty of illegal contact which occurs during a dead ball may be assessed (1) a technical foul, if the contact is deemed to be unsportsmanlike in nature, or (2) a
flagrant foul, if unnecessary and/or excessive contact occurs.
j. Free throws awarded for a technical foul must be attempted by a player in the game when the technical foul is assessed.

(1) If a substitute has been beckoned into the game or has been recognized by the officials as being in the game prior to a technical foul being assessed, she is
eligible to attempt the free throw(s).
(2) If the technical foul is assessed before the opening tap, any player listed in the scorebook as a starter is eligible to attempt the free throw(s).
(3) If a technical foul is assessed before the starting lineup is indicated, any player on the squad may attempt the free throw(s).
k. A technical foul, unsportsmanlike act or flagrant foul must be called for a participant to be ejected.
EXCEPTION: Rule 12A—Section V—1(4).
l. A player, coach or trainer must be ejected for:
(1) A punching foul
(2) A fighting foul
(3) Technical foul for an attempted punch or swing with no contact or a thrown elbow toward an opponent above shoulder level with no contact
(4) Deliberately entering the stands other than as a continuance of play
(5) Flagrant foul penalty (2)
(6) Second flagrant foul penalty (1)
(7) Kicking or throwing the ball which enters the stands with force.
m. Eye guarding (placing a hand in front of the opponent’s eyes when guarding from the rear) by a player who does not have possession of the ball is illegal and an
unsportsmanlike technical shall be assessed.
n. A free throw attempt is awarded when one technical foul is assessed.
o. No free throw attempts are awarded when a double technical foul is assessed. Technical fouls assessed to opposing teams during the same dead ball and prior to the
administering of any free throw attempt for the first technical foul shall be interpreted as a double technical foul.
p. The deliberate act of throwing the ball or any object at an official by a player, coach or trainer is a technical foul, and violators are subject to ejection from the game.
q. Punching fouls, although recorded as both personal and team fouls, are unsportsmanlike acts. The player will be ejected immediately.
r. Any player who throws or kicks the ball directly into the stands with force, regardless of the reason or where it lands, will be assessed a technical foul and ejected. All other instances where the ball ends up in the stands will subject the player to a possible technical foul and ejection.

Section VI—Fighting Fouls

a. Technical fouls shall be assessed to players, coaches or trainers for fighting. No free throws will be attempted. The participants will be ejected immediately.
b. This rule applies whether play is in progress or the ball is dead.
c. If a fighting foul occurs with a team in possession of the ball, that team will retain possession on the sideline nearest the spot where play was interrupted but no nearer to the baseline than the free throw line extended.
d. If a fighting foul occurs with neither team in possession, play will be resumed with a jump ball between any two opponents who were in the game at the center circle.
e. A fine and/or suspension may be imposed upon such person(s) by the President at her sole discretion. Any fine imposed by the League Office upon a player who is involved in an altercation will be accompanied by a fine to that player’s team.

Section VII—Fines

a. Recipients of technical fouls for unsportsmanlike conduct will be assessed a fine for the first offense and an additional fine for the second offense in any one given game. If a player is ejected on (1) the first technical foul for unsportsmanlike conduct, (2) a punching foul, (3) a fighting foul, or (4) a flagrant foul, an additional fine may be imposed upon such person(s) by the President at her sole discretion.
b. Whether or not said player(s) is ejected, a fine and/or suspension may be imposed upon such person(s) by the President at her sole discretion.
c. During an altercation, all players not participating in the game must remain in the immediate vicinity of their bench. Violators will be suspended, without pay, for a minimum of one game and fined. Any such suspension will commence prior to the start of the player’s next game.
A team must have a minimum of eight players dressed and ready to play in every game.
If four or more players leave the bench, the players will serve their suspensions alphabetically according to the first letters of their last names.
If six bench players are suspended (assuming no participants are included), three of them will be suspended for the first game following the altercation. The remaining three will be suspended for the second game following the altercation.
d. A player, coach, or assistant coach, upon being notified by an official that he/she has been ejected from the game, must leave the playing area IMMEDIATELY and remain in the dressing room of his/her team during such suspension until completion of the game or leave the building. Violation of this rule shall result in a fine, suspension, and possible forfeiture of the game. The use of messengers and/or telephones to transmit information from an ejected coach to the bench violates the spirit of this rule, and may result in appropriate penalties.
e. Any player who in the opinion of the officials has deliberately hung on the basket ring shall be assessed a non-unsportsmanlike technical foul and will be fined.
EXCEPTION: An offensive or defensive player may hang on the basket ring, backboard or support to prevent an injury to herself or another player, with no penalty.
f. At halftime and the end of each game, the coach and his/her players are to leave the court and go directly to their dressing room without pause or delay. There is to be
absolutely no talking to game officials.
g. Any player who is assessed a flagrant foul—penalty (2)—shall be ejected and will be fined. The incident will be reported to the League Office.
h. Each player, when introduced prior to the start of the game, must be uniformly dressed.

B. Personal Foul

Section I—Types

a. A player shall not hold, push, charge into, and impede the progress of an opponent by extending a hand, arm, leg or knee or by bending the body into a position that is not normal.
Contact that results in re-routing of an opponent is a foul which must be called immediately.
b. Contact initiated by a defensive player guarding a player with the ball is not legal.
This contact includes, but is not limited to, forearms, hands or body check.
EXCEPTIONS:
(1) A defender may apply contact with a forearm to an offensive player with the ball who has her back to the basket below the free throw line extended outside the
Lower Defensive Box.
(2) A defender may apply contact with a forearm and/or one hand with a bent elbow to an offensive player in the post-up position with the ball in the Lower
Defensive Box.
(3) A defender may apply contact with a forearm to an offensive player with the ball at any time in the Lower Defensive Box.
The forearm in the above exceptions is solely for the purpose of maintaining a defensive position.
(4) A defender may position her leg between the legs of an offensive player in a post-up position in the Lower Defensive Box for the purpose of maintaining
defensive position. If her foot leaves the floor in an attempt to dislodge her opponent, it is a foul immediately.
(5) Incidental contact with the hand against an offensive player shall be ignored if it does not affect a player’s speed, quickness, balance and/or rhythm.
c. Any player whose actions against an opponent cause illegal contact with yet another opponent has committed the personal foul.
d. A personal foul committed by the offensive team during a throw-in shall be an offensive foul, regardless of whether the ball has been released.
e. Contact which occurs on the hand of the offensive player, while that hand is in contact with the ball, is legal.
EXCEPTION: Flagrant and punching fouls.
PENALTIES: The offender is charged with a personal foul. The offended team is charged with a team foul if the illegal contact was caused by the defender. There is no team foul if there are personal fouls on one member of each team or the personal foul is against an offensive player. The offended team is awarded
(1) The ball out-of-bounds on the sideline at the spot nearest to where the play was interrupted but no nearer to the baseline than the free throw line extended, if
an offensive foul is assessed.
(2) The ball out-of-bounds on the sideline nearest to where the play was interrupted but no nearer to the baseline than the free throw line extended if the
personal foul is on the defender and if the penalty situation is not in effect.
(3) One free throw attempt if the personal foul is on the defender and there is a successful field goal or free throw on the play.
(4) Two/three free throw attempts if the personal foul is on the defender and the offensive player is in the act of shooting an unsuccessful field goal.
(5) One free throw attempt plus a penalty free throw attempt if the personal foul is on the defender and the offensive player is not in the act of attempting a field
goal if the penalty situation is in effect.
(6) Two free throw attempts and possession of the ball on the sideline nearest the spot where play was interrupted if an offensive player, or a teammate, is fouled
while having a clear-path-to-the-basket. A clear-path-to-the-basket foul occurs if:
(i) a personal foul is committed on any offensive player during her team’s transition scoring opportunity, (ii) when the foul occurs, the ball is ahead the tip
of the circle in the backcourt, no defender is ahead of the offensive player with the scoring opportunity and that offensive player is in control of the ball or a pass
to her has been released; and (iii) the defensive foul deprives the offensive team of a transition scoring opportunity. A clear-path-to-the-basket foul cannot occur
if (i) the offensive player is fouled in the act of shooting or (ii) the foul is caused by the defender’s attempt to intercept or deflect a pass intended for the offensive
player with the transition scoring opportunity.
(7) Two free throw attempts if a personal foul is committed against an offensive player without the ball when her team has at least a one-woman advantage on a
fast break and the defensive player takes a foul to stop play.

Section II—By Dribbler

a. A dribbler shall not (1) charge into an opponent who has established a legal guarding position, or (2) attempt to dribble between two opponents, or (3) attempt to dribble between an opponent and a boundary, where sufficient space is not available for illegal contact to be avoided.
b. If a defender is able to establish a legal position in the straight line path of the dribbler, the dribbler must avoid contact by changing direction or ending her dribble.
c. The dribbler must be in control of her body at all times. If illegal contact occurs, the responsibility is on the dribbler.
PENALTY: The offender is assessed an offensive foul. There is no team foul. The ball is awarded to the offended team on the sideline nearest the spot where play was interrupted, but no nearer to the baseline than the free throw line extended.
EXCEPTION: Rule 3—Section I—a.
d. If a dribbler has sufficient space to have her head and shoulders in advance of her defender, the responsibility for illegal contact is on the defender.
e. If a dribbler has established a straight line path, a defender may not crowd her out of that path.
PENALTY: The defender shall be assessed a personal foul and a team foul. If the penalty is not in effect, the offended team is awarded the ball on the sideline nearest the
spot where play was interrupted, but no nearer to the baseline than the free throw line extended.
If the penalty is in effect, one free throw attempt plus a penalty free throw attempt is awarded.

Section III—By Screening

A player who sets a screen shall not (1) assume a position nearer than a normal step from an opponent, if that opponent is stationary and unaware of the screener’s position, or (2) make illegal contact with an opponent when she assumes a position at the side or front of an opponent, or (3) assume a position so near to a moving opponent that she is not given an opportunity to stop and/or change direction before making illegal contact, or (4) move
laterally or toward an opponent being screened, after having assumed a legal position. The screener may move in the same direction and path of the opponent being screened.
In (3) above, the speed of the opponent being screened will determine what the screener’s stationary position may be. This position will vary and may be one to two normal steps or strides from her opponent. See Comments on the Rules Section II A (3).

Section IV—Flagrant Foul

a. If contact committed against a player, with or without the ball, is interpreted to be unnecessary, a flagrant foul—penalty (1) will be assessed. A personal foul is charged to the offender and a team foul is charged to the team.
PENALTY: (1) Two free throws shall be attempted and the ball awarded to the offended team on either side of the court at the free throw line extended. (2) If the offended
player is injured and unable to attempt her free throws, her coach will select one of the remaining four players in the game to attempt the free throws. (3) Her coach will pick the substitute, who may not be replaced until the ball is legally touched by a player on the court. (EXCEPTION: Rule 3—Section V—e.) (4) The injured player may not return to the game. (EXCEPTION: Rule 9-Section II-a-(2).) (5) A player will be ejected if she commits two flagrant fouls in the same game.
b. If contact committed against a player, with or without the ball, is interpreted to be unnecessary and excessive, a flagrant foul—penalty 2 will be assessed. A personal foul is charged to the offender and a team foul is charged to the team.
PENALTY: (1) Two free throws shall be attempted and the ball awarded to the offended team on either side of the court at the free throw line extended. (2) If the offended
player is injured and unable to attempt her free throws, her coach will select a substitute and any player from the team is eligible to attempt the free throws. (3) This substitute may not be replaced until the ball is legally touched by a player on the court. (EXCEPTION: RULE 3—Section V—e.) (4) The injured player may return to the game at any time after the free throws are attempted. (5) This is an unsportsmanlike act and the offender is ejected.
c. A flagrant foul may be assessed whether the ball is dead or alive.
d. A foul must be reviewed using Instant Replay to confirm it meets the criteria to be ruled a Flagrant (1) or (2).

Section V—Free Throw Penalty Situations

a. Each team is limited to four team fouls per regulation period without additional penalties. Common fouls charged as team fouls, in excess of four, will be penalized by one
free throw attempt plus a penalty free throw attempt.
(1) The first four common fouls committed by a team in any regulation period shall result in the ball being awarded to the opposing team on the sideline nearest
where play was interrupted but no nearer the baseline than the free throw line extended.
(2) The first three common fouls committed by a team in any overtime period shall result in the ball being awarded to the opposing team on the sideline nearest
where play was interrupted but no nearer the baseline than the free throw line extended.
(3) If a team has not committed its quota of four team fouls during the first eight minutes of any regulation period, or its quota of three team fouls during the first
three minutes of any overtime period, it shall be permitted to incur one team foul during the last two minutes without penalty.
(4) During any overtime period, common fouls charged as team fouls in excess of three will be penalized by one free throw plus a penalty free throw attempt.
(5) Personal fouls which are flagrant, punching, away-from-the-play or clearpath-to- the-basket will carry their own separate penalties and are included in the
team foul total.
(6) Personal fouls committed during a successful field goal attempt or free throw which result in one free throw attempt being awarded, will not result in an
additional free throw attempt if the penalty situation exists.
b. A maximum of three points may be scored by the same team on a successful twopoint field goal attempt.
c. A maximum of four points may be scored by the same team on a successful threepoint field goal attempt.
Section VI—Double Fouls
a. No free throw attempts will be awarded on double fouls, whether they are personal or technical.
b. Double personal fouls shall add to a player’s total, but not to the team total.
c. If a double foul occurs, the team in possession of the ball at the time of the call shall retain possession. Play is resumed on the sideline nearest the point where play was
interrupted, but no nearer to the baseline than the free throw line extended. The shot clock is reset to 24 seconds if the ball is to be inbounded in the team’s backcourt, or stay the same or reset to 14, whichever is greater, if the ball is to be inbounded in the frontcourt.
d. If a double foul occurs with neither team in possession, or when the ball is in the air on an unsuccessful field goal or free throw attempt, play will be resumed with a jump ball at the center circle between any two opponents in the game at that time. If injury, ejection or disqualification makes it necessary for any player to be replaced, no substitute may participate in the jump ball. The jumper shall be selected from one of the remaining players in the game.
e. If a double foul occurs on a successful field goal or free throw attempt, the team that has been scored upon will inbound the ball at the baseline as after any other score.
f. If a double foul occurs as a result of a difference in opinion by the officials, no points can be scored and play shall resume with a jump ball at the center circle between any two opponents in the game at that time. No substitute may participate in the jump ball.

Section VII—Offensive Fouls
a. A personal foul assessed against an offensive player which is neither punching or flagrant foul shall be penalized in the following manner:
(1) No points can be scored by the offensive team.
(2) The offending player is charged with a personal foul.
(3) The offending team is not charged with a team foul.
EXCEPTION: Rule 3—Section I—a. No penalty free throws are awarded.
(4) The ball is awarded to the offended team out-of-bounds on the sideline at the nearest spot where play was interrupted but no nearer the baseline than the free
throw line extended.
b. A personal foul assessed against an offensive player which is a punching or a flagrant foul shall be penalized in the following manner:
(1) No points can be scored by the offensive team.
(2) The offending player is charged with a personal foul.
(3) The offending team is charged with a team foul.
(4) The offended player would be awarded two free throw attempts.
(5) The ball would be put in play at the free throw line extended.

Section VIII—Loose Ball Fouls

a. A personal foul, which is neither a punching or a flagrant foul, committed while there is no team control shall be administered in the following manner:
(1) Offending team is charged with a team foul.
(2) Offending player is charged with a personal foul.
(3) Offended team will be awarded possession at the sideline, nearest the spot of the foul, but no nearer to the baseline than the free throw line extended, if no
penalty exists.
(4) Offended player is awarded one free throw attempt plus a penalty free throw attempt if the offending team is in a penalty situation.
b. If a “loose ball” foul called against the defensive team is then followed by a successful field goal, one free throw attempt will be awarded to the offended player,
allowing for the three-point or four-point play. This interpretation applies:
(1) Regardless of which offensive player is fouled.
(2) Whether or not the penalty situation exists. The ball can never be awarded to the scoring team out-of-bounds following a personal foul which occurs on the
same play.
c. If a “loose ball” foul called against the defensive team is followed by a successful free throw, one free throw will be awarded to the offended player whether or not the penalty is in effect.
d. If a “loose ball” foul called against the offensive team is then followed by a successful field goal attempt by the same offensive player, no points may be scored.

Section IX—Punching Fouls

a. Illegal contact called on a player for punching is a personal foul and a team foul.
Two free throw attempts shall be awarded, regardless of the number of previous fouls in the period. The ball shall be awarded to the offended team out-of-bounds on either side of the court at the free throw line extended, whether the free throw is successful or unsuccessful.
b. Any player who throws a punch, whether it connects or not, has committed an unsportsmanlike act. She will be ejected following confirmation during review of instant
replay and suspended for a minimum of one game.
c. This rule applies whether play is in progress or the ball is dead.
d. In the case where one punching foul is followed by another, all aspects of the rule are applied in both cases, and the team last offended is awarded possession on the sideline at the free throw line extended in the frontcourt.
e. A fine and/or suspension may be imposed upon such player(s) by the President at her sole discretion.

Section X—Away-From-the-Play Foul

a. Away-from-the-play fouls are defined in Rule 4, Section III (h) on page 10.
(1) A personal foul and team foul shall be assessed and one free throw attempt shall be awarded. The free throw may be attempted by any player in the game at
the time the personal foul was committed.
(2) If the foul occurs when the ball is inbounds, the offended team shall be awarded the ball at the nearest point where play was interrupted but no nearer to
the baseline than the free throw line extended.
(3) If the foul occurs prior to the release on a throw-in, the offended team shall be awarded the ball at the original throw-in spot, with all privileges, if any,
remaining.
EXCEPTION: Rule 12-B—Section X—b.
b. In the event that the personal foul committed is a flagrant or punching foul, the play shall be administered as follows:
(1) A personal foul and team foul shall be assessed and the free throw shooter shall be awarded two free throw attempts. The free throws may be attempted by
any player in the game at the time the flagrant foul was committed.
(2) If a flagrant foul—penalty (1) is assessed and the offended player is unable to participate in the game, the substitute will be selected by her coach. The two free
throws may be attempted by any of the four remaining players in the game. The ball will be awarded to the offended team at the free throw line extended in the
frontcourt. The injured player may return to the game.
(3) If a flagrant foul—penalty (2) or punching foul is assessed and the offended player is unable to attempt her free throws because of injury, the substitute will
be selected by her coach. The two free throws may be attempted by the substitute or any of the four remaining players in the game. If the offended player is unable
to attempt her free throws as a result of being ejected, any of the four remaining players may attempt the free throws. The ball will be awarded to the offended
team at the free throw line extended in the frontcourt. The injured player may return to the game.

RULE NO. 13—INSTANT REPLAY

Section I—Instant Replay Review Triggers

a. Instant replay would be triggered in the following situations:
(1) A field goal made with no time remaining on the clock (0:00) at the end of any period.
(2) A foul called with no time remaining on the clock (0:00) at the end of any
period.
(3) Officials are not reasonably certain whether a personal foul called at any time during a game met the criteria for a flagrant foul.
(4) An Altercation occurs. (For purposes of this instant replay rule only, an Altercation shall mean a situation in which (i) two or more players are engaged in
(a) a fight or (b) a hostile physical interaction that is not part of normal basketball play and that does not immediately resolve by itself or with the intervention of
game officials or players, or (ii) a player, coach, trainer, or other team bench person commits a hostile act against another player, referee, coach, trainer, team
bench person, or spectator (including, for example, through the use of a punch, elbow, kick, blow to the head, shove, or thrown object.)
(5) A play concludes (i) with no time remaining on the clock (0:00) at the end of any period or (ii) at a point when the game officials believe that actual time may
have expired in any period; and the officials are reasonably certain that the game clock malfunctioned during the play.
(6) Officials are not reasonably certain whether a successful field goal was scored correctly as a two-point or three-point field goal or, in the case of a called shooting
foul, whether the player was attempting a two-point or three-point field goal.
(7) Officials are not reasonably certain as to which team should be awarded
possession after a ball becomes out-of-bounds or whether an out-of-bounds in fact occurred during the last two minutes of the fourth period or last two minutes of any overtime period(s). Officials also may award the ball to the team that last touched the ball if the ball going out-of-bounds was clearly caused by an obvious
foul on the team that did not last touch the ball during the last two minutes of the fourth period or last two minutes of any overtime period(s).
(8) Officials are not reasonably certain whether a successful field goal was released or a called foul was committed prior to expiration of the shot clock.
(9) Officials are not reasonably certain whether a personal foul called at any time during a game met the criteria for a clear-path-to-the-basket foul.
(10) Officials are not reasonably certain as to which player should attempt free throws on a called foul.
(11) Officials are not reasonably certain whether the ball touched the rim and thus whether the shot clock or game clock should be adjusted during the last two
minutes of the fourth period or last two minutes of any overtime period(s).
(12) Officials have determined that illegal contact has occurred on a block/charge foul but are not reasonably certain as to whether the defender was inside or outside
the restricted area during the last two minutes of the fourth period or last two minutes of any overtime period(s).
(13) Officials are not reasonably certain whether a goaltending or basket interference violation was called correctly during the last two minutes of the
fourth period or last two minutes of any overtime period(s).
(14) Officials are not reasonably certain whether (a) an off-ball foul occurred prior to an offensive player beginning her shooting motion on a successful basket
if the off-ball foul is committed by a defensive player, (b) a defensive foul was committed prior to the ball being released on a throw-in or (c) the ball was
released on a successful field goal if the off-ball foul is a double foul or committed by an offensive player.
(15) Officials are not reasonably certain whether a team had the correct number of players on the court while the ball is in play.
b. Instant replay would NOT be used to check a successful basket in Section I above if the throw-in, free throw attempt or jump ball started with .2 or .1 on the game clock. The officials will judge the legality of the basket in these situations based on the guidelines as set forth in Comments on the Rules L.

Section II—Reviewable Matters

a. If an instant replay review is triggered as described in Section I—a(1) above, the officials would review the video to determine whether time on the game clock expired
before the ball left the shooter’s hand.
The officials may also review the video to determine only the following other matters:
(1) If the shot was timely, whether the successful field goal was scored correctly as a two-point or three-point field goal.
(2) If the shot was timely, whether the shooter committed a boundary line violation or the ball touched out-of-bounds prior to entering the basket.
For purposes of this review, the official would look only at the position of the shooter’s feet at the moment they last touched the floor immediately prior to (or,
if applicable, during) the release of the shot.
(3) Whether the shot clock expired before the ball left the shooter’s hand.
(4) Whether an 8-second backcourt violation occurred before the ball left the shooter’s hand.
(5) Whether any unsportsmanlike acts or unnecessary contact occurred.
b. If an instant replay review is triggered as described in Section I—a(2) above, the officials would review the video to determine the following: (i) whether a called foul that
is not committed on or by a player in the act of shooting occurred prior to the expiration of time on the game clock; or (ii) for a called foul that is committed on or by a player in the act of shooting: (a) whether the foul occurred prior to the expiration of time on the game clock; or (b) whether the shooter released the ball prior to the expiration of time on the game clock if the foul occurred after the expiration of time.
The officials may also review the video to determine only the following other matters:
(1) Whether the shooter fouled was attempting a two-point or three-point field goal.
(2) Whether a player fouled committed a boundary line violation prior to the foul. For purposes of this review, the official would look only at the position of the
player’s feet at the moment they last touched the floor immediately prior to (or, if applicable, during) the foul.
(3) Whether the shot clock expired before the foul occurred.
(4) Whether an 8-second backcourt violation occurred before the player was fouled.
(5) Whether any unsportsmanlike acts or unnecessary contact occurred.
c. If an instant replay review is triggered as described in Section I—a (3) above, the officials would review the video to determine only the following issues:
(1) Whether the personal foul should stand or be ruled a flagrant foul penalty 1 or 2 or a technical foul.
(2) Whether any other players committed unsportsmanlike acts or unnecessary contact immediately prior to and/or immediately following the calling of the foul.
d. If an instant replay review is triggered as described in Section I—a(4) above, the officials would review the video to determine only the following issues:
(1) The identity of all players, coaches, trainers, or team bench persons involved in the Altercation and the action immediately prior to and immediately following
the Altercation.
(2) The level of involvement of each such player, coach, trainer, or team bench person.
(3) The appropriate penalty to be assessed against each such player, coach, trainer, or team bench person.
e. If an instant replay review is triggered as described in Section I—a(5) above, the officials would review the video to determine the following issues:
(1) The proper time (if any) on the game clock following the clock malfunction by determining how much time on the game clock actually expired.
(2) For a successful field goal, whether the ball left the shooter’s hand prior to the expiration of actual time.
(3) Whether a called foul that is not committed on or by a player in the act of shooting occurred prior to the expiration of actual time.
(4) For a called foul that is committed on or by a player in the act of shooting:
(i) Whether the foul occurred prior to the expiration of actual time; or
(ii) Whether the shooter released the ball prior to the expiration of actual time if the foul occurred after the expiration of actual time.
The officials may also review the video to determine only the following other matters:
(5) If the shot was timely, whether the successful field goal was scored correctly as a two-point or three-point field goal or, in the case of a shooting foul, whether
the shooter fouled was attempting a two-point or three-point field goal.
(6) If the shot was timely, whether the shooter committed a boundary line violation or the ball touched out-of-bounds prior to entering the basket or, in the
case of a foul, whether the player fouled committed a boundary line violation. For purposes of this review, the official would look only at the position of the player’s
feet at the moment they last touched the floor immediately prior to (or, if applicable, during) the release of the shot or the foul (as applicable).
(7) Whether the shot clock expired before the ball left the shooter’s hand or the foul occurred.
(8) Whether an 8-second backcourt violation occurred before the ball entered the frontcourt.
(9) Whether any unsportsmanlike acts or unnecessary contact occurred.
NOTE: If time is added to the game clock:
i. The team with possession of the ball when the horn or whistle sounds will retain possession on the sideline at the nearest spot.
ii. If the ball is released on an unsuccessful field goal attempt or is loose when the horn or whistle sounds, the ball will be jumped at center circle between
any two opponents in the game.
iii. If the horn or whistle sounds while a successful field goal is in flight, the opposing team will inbound on the baseline as after any successful field goal.
f. If an instant replay review is triggered as described in Section I—a (6) above, the officials would review the video to determine the following issues:
(1) Whether the successful field goal was scored correctly as a two-point or threepoint field goal. Prior to the second full timeout in the fourth period, the review
must take place at the next timeout or period break following the basket in question. If the next break is halftime, the review must take place prior to the officials
leaving the court. Following the second full timeout in the fourth period and any overtime period,the review must take place at the next clock stoppage, including immediately upon a successful basket when the clock stops in the last two minutes. If a successful two-point/three-point field goal is not reviewed in accordance with the foregoing timing rules, the play can no longer be reviewed once the ball is inbounded and touched on the court, a personal foul is assessed or violation is whistled.
(2) Whether the shooter fouled was attempting a two-point or three-point field goal.
During the entire game, the review must take place prior to the shooter releasing the first free throw attempt.
The officials may also review the video to determine only the following other matters:
(3) If the shot was timely, whether the shooter committed a boundary line violation or the ball touched out-of-bounds prior to entering the basket or, in the
case of a foul, whether the player fouled committed a boundary line violation. For purposes of this review, the official would look only at the position of the player’s
feet at the moment they last touched the floor immediately prior to (or, if applicable, during) the release of the shot or the foul (as applicable).
(4) Whether the shot clock expired before the ball left the shooter’s hand or the foul occurred.
(5) Whether any unsportsmanlike acts or unnecessary contact occurred.
g. If an instant replay review is triggered as described in Section I—a(7) above, the officials would review the video to determine which team should be awarded possession. The review must take place prior to the subsequent inbounding of the ball or, if applicable, jump ball.
The officials may also review the video to determine only the following other matters:
(1) Whether time on the game clock expired prior to the ball being out-of-bounds.
(2) Whether the shot clock expired prior to the ball being out-of-bounds.
(3) Whether an 8-second backcourt violation occurred prior to the ball being outof-bounds.
(4) How much time remains in the period and/or on the shot clock.
(5) Whether any unsportsmanlike acts or unnecessary contact occurred.
h. If an instant replay review is triggered as described in Section I—a (8) above, the officials would review the video to determine the following issues:
(1) Whether time on the shot clock expired before the ball left the shooter’s hand.
Prior to the second full timeout in the fourth period, the review must take place at the next timeout or period break following the basket in question.
If the next break is halftime, the review must take place prior to the officials leaving the court. Following the second full timeout in the fourth period and any
overtime period, the review will take place at the next clock stoppage, including immediately upon a successful basket when the clock stops in the last two
minutes. If a shot clock violation is not reviewed in accordance with the foregoing timing rules, it may not be reviewed thereafter.
(2) Whether a called foul that is not committed on or by a player in the act of shooting occurred prior to the expiration of time on the shot clock.
(3) For a called foul that is committed on or by a player in the act of shooting:
(i) whether the foul occurred prior to the expiration of time on the shot clock; or
(ii) whether the shooter released the ball prior to the expiration of time on the shot clock if the foul occurred after the expiration of time on the shot clock.
During the entire game, the review of a foul occurring as the shot clock expires must take place prior to the shooter releasing the first free throw attempt or prior
to the subsequent inbounding of the ball.
The officials may also review the video to determine only the following other matters:
(4) If the shot was timely, whether the successful field goal was scored correctly as a two-point or three-point field goal or, in the case of a shooting foul, whether
the shooter fouled was attempting a two-point or three-point field goal.
(5) If the shot was timely, whether the shooter committed a boundary line violation or the ball touched out-of-bounds prior to entering the basket or, in the
case of a foul, whether the player fouled committed a boundary line violation. For purposes of this review, the official would look only at the position of the player’s
feet at the moment they last touched the floor immediately prior to (or, if applicable, during) the release of the shot or the foul (as applicable).
(6) Whether an 8-second backcourt violation occurred before the ball left the shooter’s hand or the player was fouled.
NOTE: In all the above, the officials would be permitted to utilize instant replay to determine whether (and how much) time should be put on the game clock but
only when it is determined through replay that (i) the player committed a boundary line violation, (ii) a shot clock violation occurred, (iii) an 8-second backcourt
violation occurred, (iv) a called foul occurred prior to the expiration of time on the game clock or (v) a clock malfunction occurred and time remains in the period.
(7) Whether any unsportsmanlike acts or unnecessary contact occurred.
i. If an instant replay review is triggered as described in Section I—a(9) above, the officials would review the video to determine the following issues:
(1) When the foul was called, the ball is ahead the tip of circle in the backcourt, no defender is ahead of the offensive player with the scoring opportunity and that
offensive player is in control of the ball or a pass to her has been released.
(2) The foul deprived the offensive team of a transition scoring opportunity.
(3) The foul was committed prior to the offensive player starting her shooting motion.
(4) The foul was caused by the defender’s attempt to intercept or deflect a pass intended for the player with the transition scoring opportunity.
(5) Whether any unsportsmanlike acts or unnecessary contact occurred.
j. If an instant replay review is triggered in Section I—a (10) above, the officials would review the video to determine which player was fouled. The review must take place prior to the first free throw being released. The officials would not review video to determine which player committed the foul in question.
The officials may review the video to determine only the following other matters:
(1) Whether the shooter fouled was attempting a two-point or three-point field goal.
(2) Whether the player fouled committed a boundary line violation prior to the foul.
For purposes of this review, the official would look only at the position of the player’s feet at the moment they last touched the floor immediately prior to (or, if
applicable, during) the foul.
(3) Whether the shot clock expired before the foul occurred.
(4) Whether an 8-second backcourt violation occurred before the player was fouled.
(5) Whether any unsportsmanlike acts or unnecessary contact occurred.
k. If an instant replay review is triggered in Section I—a(11) above, the officials would review the video to determine whether the ball touched the rim, and make any adjustments to the game clock, shot clock, score and possession that are appropriate in accordance with the following:
(1) If play has stopped following the offensive team retaining possession (e.g., the offensive team has made a successful field goal, or a violation or foul has been
called), the play must be reviewed immediately upon such stoppage of play and:
(i) For a successful field goal, the officials will time the play to determine whether the field goal was released prior to the expiration of 24 seconds or
allowable time. If the officials determine that the ball was released before 24 seconds or allowable time expired, the points will count and the opposing
team will inbound on the baseline as after any successful field goal. If the officials determine that the ball was released after the shot clock should have
expired, the points will not count and the opposing team will be awarded the ball at the free throw line extended.
(ii) For a called foul, the officials will time the play to determine whether the foul occurred prior to the expiration of 24 seconds or allowable time or, in
the case of a called foul that is committed on a player in the act of shooting, whether the shooter released the ball prior to the expiration of 24 seconds or
allowable time. If the officials determine that the foul occurred or the ball was released prior to the expiration of 24 seconds or allowable time, the
called foul will be upheld. If the officials determine that the foul occurred or the ball was released after the expiration of 24-seconds or allowable time, the
called foul will be overturned and a shot clock violation assessed.
(EXCEPTION: Flagrant fouls and unsportsmanlike acts and points scored therefrom will not be nullified.)
(iii) If the ball is caused to become out-of-bounds by the defensive team or a defensive violation is assessed, the officials will time the play to determine
how much time should be on the shot clock or if a shot clock violation should be assessed.
(2) If play is continuous (i.e., if there is no stoppage in play following the offensive team retaining possession of the ball), the officials will stop play during the first
pause in action prior to any subsequent change of possession. If the officials determine following review that the shot clock is correct (i.e., no adjustment is
required), then play will resume from the point of interruption. If the officials determine that the shot clock is incorrect, then the shot clock will be reset to the
time the ball was possessed by the offensive team following the ball touching (or not touching) the rim, and the game clock will also be reset to reflect the change.
The ball will be inbounded on the sideline nearest the spot where the ball was possessed.
(3) If play is stopped while neither team is in possession of the ball and the
officials determine following review that a shot clock violation has not occurred, then play will resume with a jump ball at center court between any two opponents
in the game. The shot clock and game clock will be adjusted accordingly. If an instant replay review for a shot clock adjustment is not reviewed in
accordance with the timing rules set forth above, it may not be reviewed at any point thereafter.
(4) Whether any unsportsmanlike acts or unnecessary contact occurred.
l. If an instant replay review is triggered as described in Section I—a (12) above, the
officials would review the video to determine:
(1) Whether the defender was inside or outside the restricted area.
(2) Whether the defender was in a legal guarding position.
(3) Whether any unsportsmanlike acts or unnecessary contact occurred.
m. If an instant replay review is triggered as described in Section I—a (13) above, the officials would review the video in accordance with Rule 11—Section I. The officials may also review the video to determine only the following matters:
(1) If goaltending or basket interference was ruled prior to the ball touching the rim, whether the shooter committed a boundary line violation. For purposes of
this review, the official would look only at the position of the shooter’s feet at the moment they last touched the floor immediately prior to (or, if applicable, during)
the release of the shot and the flight of the ball.
(2) If goaltending or basket interference was ruled prior to the ball touching the rim, whether an 8-second backcourt violation occurred before the ball left the
shooter’s hand.
(3) Whether any unsportsmanlike acts or unnecessary contact occurred.
n. If an instant replay review is triggered as described in Section I—a (14) above, the officials would review the video to determine:
(1) Whether the shot clock expired before the foul occurred.
(2) Whether an 8-second backcourt violation occurred before the player was fouled.
(3) Whether any unsportsmanlike acts or unnecessary contact occurred.
o. If an instant replay review is triggered as described in Section I—a (15) above, the officials would review the video in accordance with Rule 12—Section III.
p. The officials may also review the video to determine whether any unsportsmanlike acts or unnecessary contact occurred.

Section III—Replay Review Process

a. Replay reviews are to be conducted by the officials as a crew after gathering as much information as possible. In cases of conflict, the Crew Chief will make the final
decision.
b. Replay reviews should be conducted within two minutes. Notwithstanding this general rule, discretion will be used to extend the review period as reasonably necessary
under unusual circumstances, such as when the play could lead to an ejection (e.g., flagrant fouls/penalty 2), technical issues arise with the replay system, the outcome of the replay review requires multiple replay review angles or additional angles are imminent. In addition, replay reviews of Player Altercations should be concluded within whatever time is reasonably necessary, even if that time period extends beyond two minutes.
c. If the replay system is not functioning properly, or not available, the officials will use the nearest courtside broadcast production TV monitor available.
d. Following replay review, the crew will make a ruling. The call made by the game officials during play will be reversed only when the replay provides the officials with «clear and conclusive» visual evidence to do so. For clock malfunctions, the officials will not make a ruling prior to using replay.
e. The officials will use the following to make their ruling in the order listed below regarding scoring, timing or fouls at the end of any period:
(1) Game clock or shot clock on top of backboard.
(2) LED lights.
(3) Game clock on the facades of the balcony.
(4) Game clock on scoreboards hanging from the ceiling.
(5) Superimposed TV clocks.
EXCEPTION: Clock malfunctions when clocks start early, late or freeze –
Officials will use replay clock superimposed from TV production or stop watch.
f. The officials will keep both teams on the court at the end of the second period if replay is being used to determine if a foul was called prior to expiration of the period or if
there is any question whether the shooter committed a shot clock violation, 8-second violation or boundary line violation where time may be added to the game clock.
g. The officials will keep both teams on the court any time replay is used at the end of the fourth period or overtime period.

COMMENTS ON THE RULES

I. GUIDES FOR ADMINISTRATION AND APPLICATION OF
THE RULES

Each official should have a definite and clear conception of his/her overall responsibilities.
It is essential for them to know, understand and implement the rules as intended. If all officials possess the same conception there will be guaranteed uniformity in the
administration of all contests.
The restrictions placed upon the player by the rules are intended to create a balance of play, equal opportunity for the defense and the offense, provide reasonable safety and protection for all players and emphasize cleverness and skill without unduly limiting freedom of action of players or teams.
The purpose of penalties is to compensate a player who has been placed at a disadvantage through an illegal act of an opponent and to restrain players from committing
acts which, if ignored, might lead to roughness even though they do not affect the immediate play.

II. BASIC PRINCIPLES

A. CONTACT SITUATIONS

  1. Incidental Contact
    The mere fact that contact occurs does not necessarily constitute a foul. Contact which is incidental to an effort by a player to play an opponent, reach a loose ball, or perform normal defensive or offensive movements, should not be considered illegal. If, however, a player attempts to play an opponent from a position where she has no reasonable chance to perform without making contact with her opponent, the responsibility is on the player in this position.
    The hand is considered “part of the ball” when it is in contact with the ball. Therefore, contact on that hand by a defender while it is in contact with the ball is not illegal.
  2. Guarding an Opponent
    In all guarding situations, a player is entitled to any spot on the court she desires, provided she legally gets to that spot first and without contact with an opponent. If a
    defensive or offensive player has established a position on the floor and her opponent initiates contact that results in dislodging, a foul should be called IMMEDIATELY.
    During all throw-ins, the defensive player(s) must be allowed to take a position between her opponent and the basket.
    A player may continue to move after gaining a guarding position in the path of an opponent provided she is not moving directly or obliquely toward her opponent when contact occurs. A player is never permitted to move into the path of an opponent after the opponent has started her upward jumping motion.
    A player who extends a hand, forearm, shoulder, hip or leg into the path of an opponent and thereby causes contact is not considered to have a legal position in the path of an opponent.
    A player is entitled to a vertical position even to the extent of jumping straight-up or holding her arms above her shoulders, as in post play or when double-teaming in pressing tactics.
    Any player who conforms to the above is absolved from responsibility for any contact by an opponent which may dislodge or tend to dislodge such player from the position which she has attained and is maintaining legally. If contact occurs, the official must decide whether the contact is incidental or a foul has been committed.
  3. Screening
    A screener is any player with or without the ball, facing in any direction, who delays or prevents an opponent from reaching her desired position by establishing a legally
    obtained position on the floor according to certain screening action guidelines. Once a screener legally obtains her position on the floor where contact may ultimately
    occur, to be considered a legal screener, she must (1) have her legs/feet balanced so that she can move in any direction, with the inside of her legs/feet at about shoulder-width (i.e. a foot cannot be outside shoulder-width, and/or she cannot be in an unnatural/imbalanced stance), (2) have her arms near the front of her body (i.e. she cannot extend them out), (3) have her elbows extended to the sides no further than when her wrists are touching in the center of her body, and (4) not grab, hold, push or unnaturally restrict an opponent’s movement.
    A legal screener can be moving to firm up her position when contact occurs if the movement is in her chest, shoulders or hips and she absorbs the contact from the oncoming player and does not deliver the contact (e.g. by turning with the opponent rather resisting or restricting her movement or softening her stance to allow the opponent to move through the screen); or legs or feet and the contact occurs to the screener’s upper body (chest, shoulder, etc.), and not in her legs or feet.
    To establish a legally obtained position on the floor in the path of an opponent who is stationary when the screen is being set in an area that could be visible to the opponent being screened, the screener does not need to give her opponent any room, but the screener may not initiate contact.
    If a screen is being set outside the stationary opponent’s field of vision, the screener must give her opponent room to take a step towards her; or moving, the screener must allow her opponent enough room to avoid the screen. This distance depends upon the SPEED of the moving opponent being screened.
    If two opponents are moving in the same direction and path, the player who is behind is responsible for contact. The player in front may stop or slow her pace, but she may not move backward or sideward into her opponent. The player in front may or may not have the ball.
    This situation assumes the two players have been moving in identically the same direction and path before contact.
    If the above criteria are met, any contact by the legal screening player is deemed incidental in the player’s effort to screen her opponent.
  4. The Dribble
    If the dribbler’s path is blocked, she is expected to pass or shoot; that is, she should not try to dribble past an opponent unless there is a reasonable chance of getting by without contact.

    B. FOULS: FLAGRANT—UNSPORTSMANLIKE
    To be unsportsmanlike is to act in a manner unbecoming to the image of professional basketball. It consists of acts of deceit, disrespect of officials and profanity. The penalty for such action is a technical foul. Repeated acts shall result in expulsion from the game
    and potentially a fine.
    A flagrant foul—penalty (1) is unnecessary contact committed by a player against an opponent.
    A flagrant foul—penalty (2) is unnecessary and excessive contact committed by a player against an opponent. It is an unsportsmanlike act and the offender is ejected
    following confirmation by instant replay review.
    The offender will be subject to a fine and/or suspension by the President. See Rule 12B—Section IV for interpretation and penalties.

    C. BLOCK-CHARGE
    A defensive player is permitted to establish a legal guarding position in the path of a dribbler regardless of her speed and distance.
    A defensive player is not permitted to move into the path of an offensive player once she has started her upward motion to attempt a field goal or pass.
    A defensive player must allow a moving player the opportunity to avoid contact when the offensive player receives a pass outside the lower defensive box. The lower defensive box is the area between the 3-foot posted-up marks, the bottom tip of the circle and the endline.
    A defensive player must allow an airborne player the opportunity to land and then avoid contact when the offensive player is outside the lower defensive box.
    A defensive player is permitted to establish a legal guarding position in the path of an offensive player who receives a pass inside the lower defensive box regardless of her speed and distance.
    A defensive player must allow an airborne player who receives a pass the space to land when the offensive player is inside the lower defensive box.
    A player must allow a moving opponent without the ball the opportunity to avoid contact if she moves into her path.
    The speed of the player will determine the amount of distance an opponent must allow.
    If an offensive player causes contact with a defensive player who has established a legal position, an offensive foul shall be called and no points may be scored. A defensive player may turn slightly to protect herself, but is never allowed to bend over and submarine an opponent.
    An offensive foul should not be called for charging if the contact is with a secondary defensive player who has established a defensive position within a designated “restricted area” near the basket for the purpose of drawing an offensive foul. The offensive player
    must take a path directly to the rim. The “restricted area” for this purpose is the area bounded by an arc with a 4-foot radius measured from the center of the basket ring.
    EXCEPTION: Any player may be legally positioned within the “restricted area” if the offensive player receives the ball within the Lower Defensive Box.
    The mere fact that contact occurs on these type of plays, or any other similar play, does not necessarily mean that a personal foul has been committed. The officials must decide whether the contact is negligible and/or incidental, judging each situation separately.
    An offensive foul shall be assessed if the player initiates contact in a non-basketball manner (leads with her foot, an unnatural extended knee, etc.).

    D. GAME POSTPONEMENT AND CANCELLATIONS
    The decision to postpone or cancel a game can only be made by the League Office, after consultation with the affected teams.
    Before a game begins, a game may be postponed or cancelled for issues related to the condition of the playing court or arena, or a general or forecasted condition involving weather, travel, civil unrest, natural disaster, or other event. The following factors will be considered in determining whether a game will be
    postponed or cancelled:
    (1) The whereabouts of teams and game officials (including the efforts that have been made or can be made to get these participants to the game site).
    (2) Whether sufficient team and arena staff are available to operate the arena and conduct the game.
    (3) Input from both teams.
    (4) The safety of game participants, team and arena staff, and fans. (5) Communications with state or local government officials and law
    enforcement.
    (6) The ability to reschedule the game.
    (7) Any other factor that the WNBA deems relevant to the decision.
    After a game has begun, the decision to postpone or cancel that game will be made using the factors listed above. However, the determination of whether to delay the game while the decision is being made is within the authority of the game officials (inconsultation with the League Office).

    E. PHYSICAL CONTACT—SUSPENSION
    Any player or coach guilty of intentional physical contact with an official shall automatically be suspended without pay for one game. A fine and/or longer period of suspension will result if circumstances so dictate.

    F. PROTEST
    Protests are not permitted during the course of a game. In order to file a protest, a team must adhere to the following procedure:
    (a) In order to protest against or appeal from the result of a game, notice thereof must be given to the President within forty-eight (48) hours after the conclusion of said game, by fax or e-mail, stating therein the grounds for protest. No protest may be filed in connection with any game played during the regular season after midnight of the day of the last game of the regular season schedule. A protest in connection with a playoff game must be filed not later than midnight of the day of the game protested. A game may be protested only by a Governor, Alternate Governor, or the Head Coach. The right of protest shall inure not only to the immediately allegedly aggrieved contestants, but to any other team who can show an interest in the grounds of protest and the results that might be
    attained if the protest were allowed. Each fax or e-mail of protest shall be immediately confirmed by letter, and no protest shall be valid unless the letter of confirmation is accompanied by a check in the sum of $5000 payable to the WNBA. If the team filing the protest prevails, the $5000 is to be refunded. If the team does not prevail, the $5000 is to be forfeited and retained by the WNBA.
    (b) Upon receipt of a protest, the President shall at once notify the opposing team in the game protested and require both of said teams within five (5) days to file with her such evidence as she may desire bearing upon the issue. The President shall decide the question raised within five (5) days after receipt of such evidence.

    G. SHATTERING BACKBOARDS
    Any player whose contact with the basket ring or backboard causes the backboard to shatter will be penalized in the following manner:
    (1) Pre-game and/or Half-time warm-ups—No penalty to be assessed by officials.
    (2) During the game—Non-unsportsmanlike conduct technical foul. Under no circumstances will that player be ejected from the game.
    The President will review all actions and plays involved in the shattering of a backboard.

    H. PLAYER/TEAM CONDUCT AND DRESS
    (1) Each player when introduced, prior to the game, must be uniformly dressed.
    (2) Players, coaches and trainers are to stand and line up in a dignified posture along the sidelines or on the foul line during the playing of the National Anthem.
    (3) Coaches and assistant coaches must wear business attire or other apparel as may be designated by the WNBA.
    (4) While playing, players must keep their uniform shirts tucked into their shorts, and no T-shirts are allowed.
    (5) The only article bearing a commercial logo which can be worn by players is their shoes, subject to WNBA rules.

    I. OFFENSIVE 3-SECONDS
    The offensive player cannot be allowed in the 3-second lane for more than the allotted time. This causes the defensive player to “hand-check” because she cannot control the offensive player for that extended period of time.
    If the offensive player is in the 3-second lane for less than three seconds and receives the ball, she must make a move toward the basket for the official to discontinue his/her three second count. If she attempts to back the defensive player down to secure a better position in relation to the basket, offensive three seconds or an offensive foul must be called. If she passes off and immediately makes a move out of the lane, there should be no whistle.

    J. PLAYER CONDUCT—SPECTATORS
    game will be automatically ejected and the incident reported via e-mail to the President.
    Entering the stands to keep a ball in play by a player or the momentum which carries
    the player into the stands is not considered deliberate. The first row of seats is considered
    the beginning of the stands.

    K. FIGHTING
    Violent acts of any nature on the court will not be tolerated. Players involved in altercations will be ejected, fined and/or suspended.
    There is absolutely no justification for fighting in a WNBA game. The fact that a player believes she was provoked by another player is not an acceptable excuse. If a player takes it upon herself to retaliate, she can expect to be subject to appropriate penalties.

    L. EXPIRATION OF TIME
    NO LESS THAN :00.3 must expire on the game clock when a ball is thrown inbounds and then hit instantly out-of-bounds. If less than: 00.3 expires in such a situation, the timer will be instructed to deduct AT LEAST: 00.3 from the game clock. If, in the judgment of the official, the play took longer than: 00.3, he/she will instruct the timer to deduct more time. If less than: 00.3 remain on the game clock when this situation occurs, the period is over.
    The game clock must show: 00.3 or more in order for a player to secure possession of the ball on a rebound or throw-in to attempt a field goal. Instant replay shall be utilized if the basket is successful on this type of play and the clock runs to 0:00.
    The only type of field goal which may be scored if the game clock is at: 00.2 or: 00.1 is a “tip-in” or “high lob.”
    A “tip-in” is defined as any action in which the ball is deflected, not controlled, by a player and then enters the basket ring. This type of action shall be deemed legal if: 00.1 or more remains in a period.
    A “high lob” is defined as a pass which is tipped by an offensive player while in midair, and is followed instantaneously by a field goal attempt. If the reception of the pass and the subsequent “slam dunk” is immediately adjacent to the basket ring, this type of action shall be deemed legal if: 00.1 or more remains in a period. However, if the “high lob” attempt is a distance from the basket ring whereby the ball must be controlled in mid-air, either one-handed or two-handed, a minimum of: 00.3 is necessary for a field goal to score if successful. Instant replay would NOT be used if the play starts with: 00.2 or: 00.1 on the game clock.
    NO LESS than: 00.3 must expire on the game clock when a player secures possession of an unsuccessful free throw attempt and immediately requests a timeout. If LESS than:
    00.3 expires in such a circumstance, the time on the game clock shall be reduced by at least: 00.3.
    Therefore, if :00.3 OR LESS remain on the game clock when the above situation exists, and a player requests a timeout upon securing possession of the ball, the period is over.
    Regardless of when the horn or red light operates to signify the end of period, the officials (as aided by instant replay, if required) will ultimately make the final decision
    whether to allow or disallow a successful field goal. THE CREW CHIEF MUST TAKE CHARGE OF THE SITUATION.

    M. VERBAL FAN INTERFERENCE
    Any spectator who verbally abuses players and/or coaches in a manner which, in the opinion of the game officials, interferes with the ability of a coach to communicate with his/her players during the game and/or huddles, will, at the direction of the Crew Chief, be given one warning by a building security officer. If the same spectator continues to behave
    in a like manner, the crew chief shall direct a building security officer to eject the spectator from the arena only after confirmation that proper warning has been given.

    N. GUIDELINES FOR INFECTION CONTROL
    If a player suffers a laceration or a wound where bleeding occurs, or if blood is visible on a player or her uniform, the officials shall suspend the game at the earliest appropriate time and allow a maximum of 30 seconds for treatment. After that time, the head coach shall be informed that he/she has the option to substitute for the player, call a regular
    timeout or a 20-second timeout. If a substitute replaces the player, the opposing team shall be allowed to substitute one player. The bleeding player may return to the game when she has received appropriate treatment by medical staff personnel.
    A team will not be given an additional 30 seconds should the bleeding occur from a wound which reopened, which is not the result of additional contact.
    If the player returns to the game, the officials shall make certain that any lesion, wound or dermatitis is covered with a dressing that will prevent contamination to and/or from other sources. A wrist or sweat band is not considered a suitable bandage.
    If the bleeding player is awarded a free throw attempt(s) as a result of a personal foul, or is involved in a jump ball, the bleeding player will be given 30 seconds for treatment. If the treatment is not completed, play will resume and will then be suspended at the first appropriate time.
    Mandatory timeouts shall not be granted during a suspension of play unless the offensive team calls a 20-second timeout. If the suspension of play is for a defensive player, a mandatory timeout shall not be granted if the defensive team calls a 20-second timeout.
    If treatment is not completed within the allotted time, the head coach may call another timeout or substitute for the bleeding player. Substitutes are permitted consistent with existing rules on substitution.
    If a team has no timeouts remaining when play is suspended, the officials will allow 30 seconds for appropriate treatment. If the treatment is not completed in accordance with the first paragraph of Section N, the bleeding player must be removed immediately.
    ONLY the bleeding player on that team may be removed from the game under these circumstances.
    If so, the opposing team may also substitute one player.
    The offensive team will receive a full eight seconds to advance the ball into the frontcourt.
    The shot clock will remain as is or reset to 14, whichever is greater.

    O. DEAD BALL, LIVE BALL, BALL IS ALIVE
    After the ball has been dead, it is put into play by a jump ball, throw-in or a free throw attempt. The game clock does not start until the ball is legally touched on the court by a player. However, any floor violation or personal foul which may occur will be penalized.
    The ball is live when it is placed at the disposal of the thrower-in, free throw shooter or is tossed by the official on a jump ball. Illegal contact, which occurs prior to the ball becoming live, will be ignored if it is not unsportsmanlike.
    The ball is alive when it is legally tapped by one of the participants of a jump ball, released by a thrower-in or released on a free throw attempt that will remain in play.

    P. TAUNTING
    If a player blatantly taunts an opponent, a technical foul shall be assessed. The opponent WILL NOT, automatically, be assessed a technical foul. Her behavior will be the determining factor.
    Simultaneous taunting is a verbal altercation. Verbal altercations and unsportsmanlike conduct will be administered as a double technical foul and no free throws will be attempted.
    Technical fouls assessed opponents during the same dead ball and prior to the administering of any free throw attempt for the first technical foul, shall be interpreted as a double technical foul.
    A PLAYER(S) GUILTY OF TAUNTING MUST BE SINGLED OUT AND PENALIZED.
    If a previous unsportsmanlike act has been committed and if this situation is BLATANT, a technical foul must be assessed and the guilty player(s) must be ejected.

    Q. FLAGRANT FOULS CRITERIA
    a. The severity of the contact;
    b. Whether or not the player was making a legitimate basketball play (e.g., whether a player is making a legitimate effort to block a shot; note, however, that a foul committed during a block attempt can still be considered flagrant if other criteria are present, such as recklessness and hard contact to the head);
    c. Whether, on a foul committed with a player’s arm or hand, the fouling player wound up and/or followed through after making contact;
    d. The potential for injury resulting from contact (e.g., a blow to the head and a foul committed while a player is in a vulnerable position);
    e. The severity of any injury suffered by the offended player; and
    f. The outcome of the contact (e.g., whether it led to an altercation).

GOALTENDING ILLEGAL DRIBBLE DIRECTION OF PLAY
TIMEOUT TIME-IN BLOCKING
TECHNICAL FOUL FOR 3-POINT FIELD GOAL FOR 3-POINT FIELD GOAL
FLAG FROM WRIST
PATTING MOTION
CALL TEAM COLOR
POINT – DIRECTION
CALL TEAM COLOR
OPEN PALM CHOP HAND TO SIDE FISTS ON HIPS
FORM T
OFFICIAL WILL
RAISE ONE ARM ON ATTEMPT
IF THE GOAL IS SUCCESSFUL
RAISE THE OTHER ARM-72-
3 SECOND OFFENSIVE
VIOLATION ILLEGAL USE OF HANDS PERSONAL FOUL
HOLDING TO DESIGNATE
OFFENDER CHARGING
DOUBLE FOUL LOOSE BALL FOUL ILLEGAL SCREEN
OUT-OF-BOUNDS
FINGERS SIDEWARDS SIGNAL FOUL: STRIKE WRIST CLENCH FIST
SIGNAL FOUL: GRASP WRIST HOLD UP NUMBER OF PLAYER CLENCH FISTS
CROSSED CLENCHED FIST
ABOVE HEAD
EXTEND ARMS TO
SHOULDER LEVEL
ARMS OUTSTRETCHED AND
CROSSED IN FRONT OF CHEST-73 –
PUSHING CANCEL SCORE
CANCEL PLAY
BASKET INTERFERENCE JUMP BALL TRAVELING
SHOT CLOCK VIOLATION HAND CHECKING ILLEGAL FOREARM
TOUCH SHOULDERS
WITH HANDS SIGNAL FOUL: IMITATE PUSH SHIFT ARMS ACROSS BODY
ROTATE FINGER
WIPE OUT BASKET THUMBS UP ROTATE FISTS
TAP HEAD SIGNAL
ARM STRAIGHT OUT OPPOSITE
ARM GRABBING WRIST
ARM BENT 90 DEGREES IN
FRONT OF BODY
20 SECOND TIMEOUT-74 –
OFFENSIVE PLAYER OUT-OF-BOUNDS
DEAD BALL RESET SHOT CLOCK RESET-TO-14 SECONDS
CHOP DOWN TWO FINGERS FOLLOWED BY
TECHNICAL FOUL SIGNAL
ARMS OUTSTRETCHED TO SIDE FROM
SHOULDER TO WRIST IN DOWNWARD MOTION

Extraído de la fuente original: https://official.nba.com/rulebook/

Cedric Arregui Guivarc'h
Entrenador Nacional de Baloncesto (CES 2014) y Árbitro por la Federación de Baloncesto de Madrid



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