Reglamento NBA

reglamento, NBA, baloncesto

En el siguiente artículo transcribimos el Reglamento NBA en versión original.

RULE NO. 1: Court Dimensions – Equipment

Section I—Court and Dimensions

  1. The playing court shall be measured and marked as shown in the court (See below)
  2. A free throw lane shall be marked at each end of the court with dimensions and markings as shown on the court diagram.   All boundary lines are part of the lane; lane space marks and neutral zone marks are not. The areas identified by the lane space markings are 2” by 6” inches.
  3. A free throw line shall be drawn (2” wide) across each of the circles indicated in the court diagram.  It shall be parallel to the end line and shall be 15’ from the plane of the face of the backboard.
  4. The three-point field goal area has parallel lines 3’ from the sidelines, extending from the baseline and an arc of 23’9” from the middle of the basket which intersects the parallel lines.
  5. Four hash marks shall be drawn (2” wide) perpendicular to the sideline on each side of the court and 28’ from the baseline.  These hash marks shall extend 3’ onto the court.
  6. Two hash marks shall be drawn (2” wide) perpendicular to the baseline on each side of the free throw lane line. These hash marks shall be 3’ from the free throw lane line and extend 6” onto the court.
  7. Four hash marks shall be drawn (2” wide) parallel to the baseline on each side of the free throw circle.  These hash marks shall be 13’ from the baseline and 3’ from the free throw lane lines and shall be 6” in length.
  8. Two hash marks shall be drawn (2” wide) perpendicular to the sideline, in front of the scorer ’s table, and 4’ on each side of the midcourt line. This will designate the Substitution Box.
  9. A Restricted Area shall be marked with a half-circle 4’ from the center of the basket ring and then parallel to the lane line to the face of the backboard with a solid two-inch line.

Section II—Equipment

  1. The backboard shall be a rectangle measuring 6’ horizontally and 3 ½’ vertically. The front surface shall be flat and transparent.
  2. A transparent backboard shall be marked with a 2” white rectangle centered behind the This rectangle shall have outside dimensions of 24” horizontally and 18” vertically.
  3. Home management is required to have a spare board with supporting unit on hand for emergencies, and a steel tape or extension ruler and a level for use if necessary.
  4. Each basket shall consist of a pressure-release NBA approved metal safety ring 18” in inside diameter with a white cord net 18” in length.  The cord of the net shall not be less than 30 thread nor more than 120 thread and shall be constructed to check the ball momentarily as it passes through the basket.
  5. Each basket ring shall be securely attached to the backboard with its upper edge 10’ above and parallel to the floor and equidistant from the vertical edges of the board. The nearest point of the inside edge of the ring shall be 6” from the plane of the face of the The ring shall be painted orange.
  6. (1) The ball shall be an officially approved NBA ball between 7 ½ and 8 ½ pounds pressure. (2) A minimum of nine balls must be made available to each team for pre-game warmup.
  7. NBA arena backboards must contain four strips of red LED lights, synchronized with the game clock, outlining the inside of the four sides of the backboard to indicate the expiration of time and one strip of an amber LED light to indicate the expiration of the shot clock.

RULE NO. 2: Duties of the Officials

Section I – The Game Officials

Section II – Duties of the Officials

Section III – Elastic Power

Section IV – Different Decisions by Officials

Section V – Time and Place for Decisions

Section VI – Correcting Errors

Section VII – Duties of Scorers

Section VIII – Duties of Timers

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Section I—The Game Officials

  1. The game officials shall be a Crew Chief, Referee, Umpire and Replay Center They will be assisted by an official scorer, two trained timers, and courtside administrator. One timer will operate the game clock and the other will operate the shot clock. The courtside administrator will be stationed at the scorer’s table to facilitate communication between the Replay Center Official, on-court game officials, official scorer, and other personnel at the scorer’s table.  All officials shall be approved by the League Office.

Section II—Duties of the Officials

  1. The officials shall, prior to the start of the game, inspect and approve all equipment, including court, baskets, balls, backboards, timer’s and scorer’s equipment.
  2. The officials shall not permit players to play with any type of jewelry.
  3. The officials shall not permit any player to wear equipment which, in their judgment, is dangerous to other players. Any equipment which is of hard substance (casts, splints, guards and braces) must be padded or foam covered and have no exposed sharp or cutting edge. All the face masks and eye or nose protectors must be approved by NBA Basketball Operations and conform to the contour of the face and have no sharp or protruding edges.
  4. The use of any foreign substance during games is strictly prohibited.  A “foreign substance” is any substance that is applied during games to a player’s body, uniform or equipment, or to any game equipment, that is designed or intended to provide a player or a team with a competitive advantage.
  5. All equipment used must be appropriate for basketball. Equipment that is unnatural and designed to increase  a  player’s  height  or  reach,  or  to  gain  an  advantage,  shall  not be  used.
  6. The officials must check the game balls to see that they are properly inflated.  The recommended ball pressure should be between 7 ½ and 8 ½ pounds.
  7. The crew chief shall be the official in charge.
  8. The Replay Center Official will make the final ruling on all replays, except for Flagrant Fouls and Altercations.
  9. If a coach desires to discuss a rule or interpretation of a rule prior to the start of a game or between periods, it will be mandatory for the officials to ask the other coach to be present during the discussion. The same procedure shall be followed if the officials wish to discuss a game situation with either coach.
  10. The designated official shall toss the ball at the start of the game. The crew chief shall decide whether or not a goal shall count if the officials disagree, and he shall decide matters upon which scorers and timers disagree.
  11. All officials shall enter the court prior to the 15-minute mark on the game clock to observe the warm-up period and report to the league office any atypical situations and to review scoring and timing procedures with table personnel.
  12. The crew chief must check the Active List prior to the start of the game.
  13. Officials must meet with team captains prior to the start of the game.
  14. Officials must report any atypical or unique incident to the Basketball and Referee Operations Departments by e-mail. Flagrant, punching, fighting fouls or a team’s failure to have eight players to begin the game must also be reported.

Section III—Elastic Power

The officials shall have the power to make decisions on any point not  specifically covered in the rules. The League Office will be advised of all such decisions at the earliest possible moment.

Section IV—Different Decisions By Officials

  1. The crew chief shall have the authority to set aside or question decisions regarding a rule interpretation made by either of the other officials.
  2. If two officials give conflicting signals as to who caused the ball to go out-of- bounds, they will conference and reconstruct the play in an attempt to make the correct call.  If no resolution is reached, a jump ball will be signaled between the two players involved at the nearest circle. If the two players cannot be identified, the jump ball shall be administered at the center circle between any two opponents in the game. If one official signals and another official clearly knows the call is incorrect, they should conference and the calling official may change the call on the information given. However, if both officials are adamant about their ruling, a jump ball should be held similar to above.
    1. EXCEPTION: Last two minutes of fourth period and last two minutes of overtime. (See Rule 13—Section I—a—(7))
  3. In the event that a violation and foul occur at the same time, the foul will take precedence.
  4. Double Foul (See Rule 12B—Section VI—f).
  5. If the two officials differ on a block/charge foul involving the restricted area and/or lower defensive box, they will conference and share information in an attempt to make the correct If no resolution is reached it will be treated as a double foul (See Rule 12B— Section VI—f).
    1. EXCEPTION: Last two minutes of fourth period and last two minutes of overtime. (See Rule 13—Section I—a—(12))

Section V—Time and Place for Decisions

  1. The officials have the power to render decisions for infractions of rules committed inside or outside the boundary lines.  This includes periods when the game may be stopped for any reason.
  2. When a personal foul or violation occurs, an official will blow his/her whistle to terminate play. The whistle is the signal for the timer to stop the game If a personal foul has occurred, the official will indicate the number of the offender to the official scorer, the type of foul committed and the number of free throws, if any, to be attempted or indicate the spot of the throw-in.  If a violation has occurred the official will indicate (1) the nature of the violation by giving the correct signal (2) the number of the offender, if applicable (3) the direction in which the ball will be advanced.
  3. When a team is entitled to a throw-in, an official shall clearly signal (1) the act which caused the ball to become dead (2) the spot of the throw-in (3) the team entitled to the throw-in, unless it follows a successful field goal or free throw.
  4. When a whistle is erroneously sounded, whether the ball is in a possession or non- possession status, it is an inadvertent whistle and shall be interpreted as a suspension- of-play.
  5. An official may suspend play for any unusual circumstance (See Rule 4  – Section XIII).

Section VI—Correcting Errors

A.    FREE THROWS

Officials may correct an error if a rule is inadvertently set aside and results in the following:

  1. A team not shooting a merited free throw that will remain in play.
    1. EXCEPTION: If the offensive team scores or shoots earned free throws as a result of a personal foul prior to possession by the defensive team the error shall be ignored if more than 24 seconds has expired.
  2. A team not shooting a merited free throw that will not remain in play. The error shall be corrected, all play shall stand and play will resume from the point of interruption with the clocks remaining the same.
  3. A team shooting an unmerited free throw.
  4. Permitting the wrong player to attempt a free throw.
  1. Officials shall be notified of a possible error at the first dead ball.
  2. Errors which occur in the first or third periods must be discovered and rectified prior to the start of the next period.
  3. Errors which occur in the second period must be discovered and the scorer’s table notified prior to the officials leaving the floor at the end of the The error(s) must be rectified prior to the start of the third period.
  4. Errors which occur in the fourth period or overtime(s) must be discovered and rectified prior to the end of the period.
  5. The ball is not in play on corrected free throw attempt(s). Play is resumed at the same spot and under the same conditions as would have prevailed had the error not been discovered.
  6. All play that occurs is to be nullified if the error is discovered within a 24-second time The game clock shall be reset to the time that the error occurred.
    1. EXCEPTION (1): Acts of unsportsmanlike conduct and all flagrant fouls, and points scored therefrom, shall not be nullified.
    2. EXCEPTION (2): If the error to be corrected is for a free throw attempt where there is to be no line-up of players on the free throw lane (technical foul, defensive three seconds, flagrant foul, clear path-to-the-basket foul, punching foul, away-from-the-play foul) the error shall be corrected, all play shall stand and play shall resume from the point of interruption with the clocks remaining the same.

B.        LINEUP POSITIONS

In any jump ball situation, if the jumpers lined up incorrectly, and the error is discovered:

  1. After more than 24 seconds has elapsed, the teams will continue to shoot for that basket for the remainder of that half and/or If the error is discovered in the first half, teams will shoot at the proper basket as decided by the opening tap for the second half.
  2. If 24 seconds or less has elapsed, all play shall be nullified.
    1. EXCEPTION: Acts of unsportsmanlike conduct, all flagrant fouls, and points scored therefrom, shall not be nullified and play will resume from the original jump ball with players facing the proper direction.

C.        THROW-IN

If the second, third or fourth period or any throw-in begins with the wrong team being awarded possession or the teams facing in the wrong direction, and the error is discovered:

  1. after 24 seconds has elapsed, the error cannot be corrected.
  2. with 24 seconds or less having elapsed, all play shall be nullified.
    1. EXCEPTION: Acts of unsportsmanlike conduct, all flagrant fouls, and points scored therefrom, shall not be nullified.

D.        RECORD KEEPING

A record keeping error by the official scorer which involves the score, number  of personal fouls, team fouls and/or timeouts may be corrected by the officials at any time prior to the end of the fourth period. Any such error which occurs in overtime must be corrected prior to the end of that period.

Section VII—Duties of Scorers

  1. The scorers shall record the field goals made, the free throws made and missed and shall keep a running summary of the points scored.  They shall record the personal and technical fouls called on each player and shall notify the officials immediately when a sixth personal foul is called on any player. They shall record the timeouts charged to each team, shall notify a team and its coach through an official whenever that team is granted its final timeout and shall notify the nearest official each time a team is granted a charged timeout in excess of the legal number. In case there is a question about an error in the scoring, the scorer shall check with the crew chief at once to find the discrepancy. If the error cannot be found, the official shall accept the record of the official scorer, unless he has knowledge that forces him to decide otherwise.
    1. NOTE: Rule 14, the Coach’s Challenge, is an experimental rule in effect for the 2019-2020 NBA Season. For the purposes of Rule II, Section VII, the official scorer shall record, only after notification by the on court game officials, if and when a coach uses his/her Coach’s Challenge. The full duties of the official scorer with respect to the Coach’s Challenge are defined in Rule 14—II—c.
  2. The scorers shall keep a record of the names, numbers and positions of the players who are to start the game and of all substitutes who enter the When there is an infraction of the rules pertaining to submission of the active list, substitutions or numbers of players, they shall notify the nearest official immediately if the ball is dead, or as  soon  as  it becomes dead if it is in play when the infraction is discovered. The scorer shall mark the time at which players are disqualified by reason of receiving six personal fouls, so that it may be easy to ascertain the order in which the players are eligible to go back into the game in accordance with Rule 3—Section I.
  3. The scorers shall ask the timer to sound the horn to signal the officials. This may be used when the ball is dead or in certain specified situations when the ball is in control of a given team.  When a player is disqualified from the game, or whenever a penalty free throw is being awarded, the timer will sound the horn to notify the game officials. It is the duty of the scorekeeper to inform the timer to sound the horn and be certain that the officials have acknowledged a player’s sixth personal foul and/or the penalty is in effect.
  4. The scorer shall not signal the officials while the ball is in play, except to notify them of the necessity to correct an error.
  5. Should the scorer sound the horn while the ball is in play, it shall be ignored by the players on the court.  The officials must use their judgment in stopping play to consult with the scorer’s table.
  6. Scorers shall record on the scoreboard the number of team fouls up to a total of five, which will indicate that the team is in a penalty situation.
  7. Scorers shall, immediately, record the name of the team which secures the first possession of the game.

Section VIII—Duties of Timers

  1. The timers shall note when each half is to start and shall notify the crew chief and both coaches five minutes before this time, or cause them to be notified at least five minutes before the half is to start.  They shall signal the scorers two minutes before starting time. They shall record playing time and time of stoppages as provided in the rules. The official timer and the 24-second clock operator shall be provided with digital stop watches to be used in case the official timeout, game clock and/or 24-second clocks/game clocks located above the backboards fail to work properly.
  2. At the beginning of the first period, any overtime period or whenever play is resumed by a jump ball, the game clock shall be started when the ball is legally tapped by either of the jumpers.  The 24-second clock will be started when player possession of the ball is obtained. No time will be removed from the game clock and/or 24-second clock if the ball is not legally touched before a violation.
  3. If the game clock has been stopped and the ball is put in play by a throw-in, the game clock and the 24-second clock shall be started when the ball is legally touched by any player on the court.  The starting of the game clock and the 24-second clock will be under the control of the official timer.
  4. During an unsuccessful free throw attempt, the game clock will be started when the ball is legally The 24-second clock will be started when player possession of the ball is obtained.
  5. The game clock shall be stopped at the expiration of time for each period and when an official sounds his/her whistle.  The timers shall record only the actual playing time in the last minute of the first, second and third periods. They shall record only the actual playing time in the last two minutes of the fourth period and the last two minutes of any overtime period(s).
  6. For a charged timeout, the timer shall start the Time-out Clock immediately after an official signals for a timeout and play will not resume until the Time-out Clock has expired.
  7. The game clock and the scoreboard will combine to cause a horn to sound, automatically, when playing time for the period has expired.  If the horn or buzzer fails to sound, or is not heard, the official timer shall use any other means to notify the officials immediately.
  8. In a dead ball situation, if the clock shows :00.0, the period or game is considered to have ended although the horn may not have sounded.

EXCEPTION: See Rule 13

RULE NO 3: Players, Substitutes and Coaches

Section I—Team

  1. Each team shall consist of five players.  A player is disqualified from the game when he receives his sixth personal foul. No team may be reduced to less than five players. If a player in the game receives his sixth personal foul and all substitutes have already been dis-qualified, said player shall remain in the game and shall be charged with a personal and team foul. A technical foul also shall be assessed against his team. All subsequent personal fouls, including offensive fouls, shall be treated similarly. All players who have six or more personal fouls and remain in the game shall be treated similarly.
  2. In the event that there are only five eligible players remaining and one of these players is injured and must leave the game or is ejected, he must be replaced by the last player who was disqualified by reason of receiving six personal fouls.  Each subsequent requirement to replace an injured or ejected player will be treated in this inverse order. Any such re- entry into a game by a disqualified player shall be penalized by a technical foul.
  3. In the event that a player leaves the playing court while the ball is in play, play will continue until the next stoppage of play and the player will be replaced if he is not ready to return. No technical foul will be assessed, but the incident will be reviewed by the league office for a possible fine and/or suspension.
    1. EXCEPTION: Rule 10—Section XV

Section II—Starting Line-Ups

At least 30 minutes before the game is scheduled to begin, the scorers shall be supplied with the name and number of each player who will start the game. Failure to comply with this provision shall be reported to the League Office.

Section III—The Captain

  1. A team may have a captain and a co-captain numbering a maximum of two. The designated captain may be anyone on the active list who is in uniform, except a player-coach.
  2. The designated captain is the only player who may ask an official about a rule interpretation during a timeout charged to his team. He may not discuss a judgment decision.
  3. If the designated captain continues to sit on the bench, he remains the captain for the entire game.
  4. In the event that the captain is absent from the court and bench, his coach shall immediately designate a new captain.

Section IV—The Coach and Others

  1. The coach’s position may be on or off the bench from the substitution box line (closest to the coach’s bench) to the baseline. A coach is not permitted to cross the midcourt line and violators will be assessed an unsportsmanlike technical foul immediately. All assistants and trainers must remain on the bench. Coaches and trainers are not permitted to go to the scorer’s table, for any reason, except during a dead ball.
  2. A player-coach, if permitted under NBA regulations, will have no special privileges. He is to conduct himself in the same manner as any other player.
  3. Any club personnel not seated on the bench must conduct themselves in a manner that would reflect favorably on the dignity of the game and the officials. Violations by any of the personnel indicated shall require a written report to the League Office for subsequent action.
  4. The bench shall be occupied only by a league-approved head coach, a maximum of three assistant coaches, players and trainer. During an altercation, the head and assistant coaches are permitted on the court as ‘peacemakers.
  5. If a player, coach or assistant coach is suspended from a game or games, he shall not at any time before, during or after such game or games appear in any part of the arena or stands where his team is playing. A player, coach or assistant coach who is ejected may only remain in the dressing room of his team during the remainder of the game, or leave the building. A violation of this rule shall call for an automatic fine of $2000.

Section V—Substitutes

  1. A substitute shall report to the scorer and position himself in the vicinity of the 8’ Substitution Box located in front of the scorer’s table. For purposes of this rule, the vicinity of the 8’ Substitution Box means the area from between the 28’ hash mark closest to the bench of the player’s team and the midcourt line. He shall inform the scorer whom he is going to replace. The scorer shall sound the horn to indicate a substitution. The horn does not have to be sounded if the substitution occurs between periods or during timeouts.
  2. The substitute shall remain in the vicinity of the 8’ Substitution Box until he is beckoned onto the court by an official. If the ball is about to become live, the beckoning signal shall be withheld.
  3. A substitute must be ready to enter the game when beckoned. No delays for removal of warm-up clothing will be  permitted.
  4. The substitute shall not replace a free throw shooter or a player involved in a jump ball unless dictated to do so by an injury or ejection. (EXCEPTION: Rule 6 -Section VI – b and Rule 9 -Section II – a – (2)) . At no time may he be allowed to attempt a free throw awarded as a result of a technical foul.
  5. A substitute shall be considered as being in the game when he is beckoned onto the court or recognized as being in the game by an official. Once a player is in the game, he can- not be removed until the ball is legally touched by a player on the court unless: (1) a personal or technical foul is called, (2) there is a change of possession, (3) a timeout is granted or (4) administration of infection control rule.
  6. A substitute may be recalled from the scorer’s table prior to being beckoned onto the court by an official.
  7. A player may be replaced and allowed to re-enter the game as a substitute during the same dead ball.
  8. A player must be in the vicinity of the 8’ Substitution box at the time a violation occurs if the throw-in is to be administered in the backcourt. If a substitute fails to meet this requirement, he may not enter the game until the next legal opportunity.
    1. EXCEPTION: In the last two minutes of each period or overtime, a reasonable amount of time will be allowed for a substitution.
  9. If a free throw(s) is awarded, substitutes are only permitted to enter the game prior to the final free throw attempt if the ball will remain in play or following the final free throw attempt if it will not remain in play unless necessitated by disqualification, injury, ejection or any other atypical situation.
  10. No substitutes may enter the game after a successful field goal by either team, unless the ball is dead due to a personal foul, technical foul, timeout, infection control or violation.
  11. No substitutes are allowed to enter the game during an official’s suspension-of-play for (1) a delay-of-game warning, (2) retrieving an errant ball, (3) an inadvertent whistle, (4) instant replay review or (5) any other unusual circumstance.
    1. EXCEPTIONS:
      1. Suspension of play for a player bleeding. See Comments on the Rules—N.
      2. Seriously-injured player. Player must be removed and opponent is permitted one substitution.
  12. A substitute shall not be allowed to re-enter the game after being disqualified. EXCEPTION: Rule 3—Section I—b.
  13. Notification of all above infractions and ensuing procedures shall be in accordance with Rule 2—Section VII.

Section VI—Uniforms (Players Jerseys)

  1. Each player shall be numbered on the front and back of his jersey with a number contrasting with the color of the
  2. Each number must be no less than ¾” in height on the front and 6” on the Each player shall have his surname affixed to the back of his game jersey in letters at least 2½” in height. Some exceptions to the front number height and surname may exist from time to time.
  3. The home team shall wear light color jerseys, and the visitors dark jerseys unless otherwise For neutral court games and doubleheaders, the second team named in the official schedule shall be regarded as the home team and shall wear the light colored jerseys.

RULE NO. 4: Definitions

Section I—Basket/Backboard

Section II—Dribble

Section III—Fouls

Section IV—Free Throw

Section V—Frontcourt/Backcourt

Section VI—Held Ball

Section VII—Pivot

Section VIII—Traveling

Section IX—Screen

Section X—Field Goal Attempt

Section XI—Throw-In

Section XII—Last Two Minutes

Section XIII—Suspension of Play

Section XIV—Point of Interruption

Section XV—Team Control

Section XVI—Team Possession

Section XVII—Fumble

Section I—Basket/Backboard

a. A team’s basket consists of the basket ring and net through which its players try to
shoot the ball. The visiting team has the choice of baskets for the first half. The basket
selected by the visiting team when it first enters onto the court shall be its basket for the first
half.
b. The teams change baskets for the second half. All overtime periods are considered
extensions of the second half.
c. Five sides of the backboard (front, two sides, bottom and top) are considered in play
when contacted by the basketball. The back of the backboard and the area directly behind it
are out-of-bounds.

Section II—Dribble

A dribble is movement of the ball, caused by a player in control, who throws or taps the
ball to the floor.

a. The dribble ends when the dribbler:

    1. Touches the ball simultaneously with both hands
    2. Permits the ball to come to rest while he is in control of it
    3. Tries for a field goal
    4. Throws a pass
    5. Touches the ball more than once while dribbling, before it touches the floor
    6. Loses control
    7. Allows the ball to become dead
    8. Otherwise gathers the ball (see Rule IV, Section III (b))

Section III – The Gather

  1. For a player who receives the ball via a pass or gains possession of a loose ball, the gather is defined as the point where the player gains enough control of the ball to hold it, change hands, pass, shoot, or the player cradles the ball against his body.
  2. For a player who is in control of the ball while dribbling, the gather is defined as the point where a player does any one of the following:(1) Puts two hands on the ball, or otherwise permits the ball to come to rest, while he is in control of it;
    1. Puts two hands on the ball, or otherwise permits the ball to come to rest, while he is in control of it;
    2. Puts a hand under the ball and brings it to a pause;
    3. Otherwise gains enough control of the ball to hold it, change hands, pass, shoot, or the player cradles the ball against his body.

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Section IV—Fouls

a. A common personal foul is illegal physical contact which occurs with an opponent
after the ball has become live and before the horn sounds to end the period. If time expires
before the personal foul occurs, the personal foul should be disregarded, unless it was

EXCEPTION: If the foul is committed on or by a player in the act of shooting, and the
shooter released the ball prior to the expiration of time on the game clock, then the foul
should be administered in the same manner as with any similar play during the course of the
game (See Rule 13—Section II—b—ii).

b. A technical foul is the penalty for unsportsmanlike conduct or violations by team
members on the floor or seated on the bench.
c. A double foul is a situation in which any two opponents commit personal fouls at
approximately the same time.
d. An offensive foul is illegal contact, committed by an offensive player, after the ball
is live and there is team control.
e. A loose ball foul is illegal contact, after the ball is alive, when team control does
not exist.
f. A flagrant foul is unnecessary and/or excessive contact committed by a player against
an opponent whether the ball is dead or alive.
g. A punching foul is a punch by a player which makes contact with an opponent
whether the ball is dead or alive.
h. An away-from-the-play foul is illegal contact by the defense (1) in the last two
minutes of each period, and last two minutes of any overtime periods, which occurs deliberately
away from the immediate area of offensive action, or (2) prior to the ball being released on a
throw-in at any point during the entire game.

Section V—Free Throw

A free throw is the privilege given a player to score one point by an unhindered attempt
for the goal from a position directly behind the free throw line. This attempt must be made
within 10 seconds.

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Section VI—Frontcourt/Backcourt

a. A team’s frontcourt consists of that part of the court between its endline and the
nearer edge of the midcourt line, including the basket and inbounds part of the backboard.
b. A team’s backcourt consists of the entire midcourt line and the rest of the court to
include the opponent’s basket and inbounds part of the backboard.
c. A ball being held by a player: (1) is in the frontcourt if neither the ball nor the player
is touching the backcourt, (2) is in the backcourt if either the ball or player is touching the
backcourt.
d. A ball being dribbled is (1) in the frontcourt when the ball and both feet of the player
are in the frontcourt, (2) in the backcourt if the ball or either foot of the player is in the
backcourt.
e. The ball is considered in the frontcourt once it has broken the plane of the midcourt
line and is not in player control.
f. The team on offense must bring the ball across the midcourt line within 8 seconds.

EXCEPTION: (1) kicked ball, (2) punched ball, (3) personal or technical foul on the
defensive team, (4) delay-of-game warning on the defensive team or (5) infection control.

g. Frontcourt/backcourt status is not attained until a player with the ball has established
a positive position in either half during (1) a jump ball, (2) a steal by a defensive player,
(3) a throw-in in the last two minutes of the fourth period and last two minutes of any
overtime period or (4) any time the ball is loose.

Section VII—Held Ball

A held ball occurs when two opponents have one or both hands firmly on the ball or
when a defensive player touches the ball causing the offensive player to return to the floor
with the ball in his continuous possession which would result in a traveling violation.

A held ball should not be called until both players have hands so firmly on the ball that
neither can gain sole possession without undue roughness. If a player is lying or sitting on
the floor while in possession, he should have an opportunity to throw the ball.

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Section VIII—Pivot

a. A pivot takes place when a player, who is holding the ball, steps once or more
than once in any direction with the same foot, with the other foot (pivot foot) in contact with
the floor.
b. If the player wishes to dribble after a pivot, the ball must be out of his hand before
the pivot foot is raised off the floor. If the player raises his pivot off the floor, he must pass or
attempt a field goal before the foot is returned to the floor.

If he fails to follow these guidelines, he has committed a traveling violation.

Section IX—Traveling

Traveling is progressing in any direction while in possession of the ball, which is in
excess of prescribed limits as noted in Rule 4—Section VII and Rule 10—Section XIII.

Section X—Screen

A screen is the legal action of a player who, without causing undue contact, delays or
prevents an opponent from reaching a desired position.

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Section XI—Field Goal Attempt

A field goal attempt is a player’s attempt to shoot the ball into his basket for a field
goal. The act of shooting starts when, in the official’s judgment, the player has started his
shooting motion and continues until the shooting motion ceases and he returns to a normal
floor position. For jump shots, the shooting motion starts when the offensive player starts to
bring the ball upward towards the basket. On drives to the basket or other moving shots, the
shooting motion starts when the player gathers the ball and continues through with a shot
(except during a take foul situation when the clocks are not expiring, the shooting begins
when the player’s shoulders start upward). It is not essential that the ball leave the shooter’s
hand. His arm(s) might be held so that he cannot actually make an attempt.

The term is also used to include the flight of the ball until it becomes dead or is touched
by a player. A tap during a jump ball or rebound is not considered a field goal attempt. However,
anytime a live ball is in flight toward the rim from the playing court, the goal, if made,
shall count, even if time expires or the official’s whistle sounds. The field goal will not be
scored if time on the game clock expires before the ball leaves the player’s hand or the ball
is in flight toward the rim.

Section XII—Throw-In

A throw-in is a method of putting the ball in play from out-of-bounds in accordance
with Rule 8—Section III. The throw-in begins when the ball is given to and controlled by
the player inbounding, or at his disposal, and ends when the ball is released.

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Section XIII—Last Two Minutes

When the game clock shows 2:00, the period is considered to be in the two-minute
period.

Section XIV—Suspension of Play

An official can suspend play for retrieving an errant ball, re-setting the timing devices,
delay-of-game warning, inadvertent whistle, instant replay, a seriously-injured player or any
other unusual circumstance. During such a suspension, neither team is permitted to substitute
and the defensive team may not be granted a timeout. Play shall be resumed at the point of
interruption.

EXCEPTIONS:
(1) Suspension of play for a player bleeding. See Comments on the Rules—N.
(2) Seriously-injured player. Player must be removed and opponent is permitted one
substitution.

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Section XV—Point of Interruption

The Point of Interruption is where the ball is located when the whistle sounds.

Section XVI—Team Control

A team is in control when a player is holding, dribbling or passing the ball. Team
control ends when the defensive team deflects the ball or there is a field goal attempt.

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Section XVII—Team Possession

A team is in possession when a player is holding, dribbling or passing the ball. Team
possession ends when the defensive team gains possession or the ball hits the rim of the
offensive team.

Section XVIII—Fumble

A player who is holding the ball and fumbles it out of his control may recover the ball.
If his pivot foot moves to recover the ball, he must then pass or shoot the ball. If he fumbles
and recovers it without moving his pivot foot and before the ball touches the floor, he retains
his status before the fumble.

RULE NO. 5: Scoring and Timing

Jump to:

Scoring

Timing

End of Period

Tie Score – Overtime

Stoppage of Timing Devices

Timeouts – Mandatory/Team

Timeout Requests

Time-In

Section I—Scoring

  1. A legal field goal or free throw attempt shall be scored when a ball from the playing area enters the basket from above and remains in or passes through the net.
  2. A successful field goal attempt from the area on or inside the three-point field goal line shall count two points.
  3. A successful field goal attempt from the area outside the three-point field goal line shall count three points.
    1. The shooter must have at least one foot on the floor outside the three-point field goal line prior to the attempt.
    2. The shooter may not be touching the floor on or inside the three-point field goal line.
    3. The shooter may contact the three-point field goal line, or land in the two-point field goal area, after the ball is released.
  4. A field goal accidentally scored in an opponent’s basket shall be added to the opponent’s score, credited to the opposing player nearest the player whose actions caused the ball to enter the basket.
  5. It is a violation for a player to attempt a field goal at an opponent’s basket. The opposing team will be awarded the ball at the free throw line extended.
  6. A successful free throw attempt shall count one point.
  7. An unsuccessful free throw attempt which is tapped into the basket shall count two points and shall be credited to the player who tapped the ball in.
  8. If there is a discrepancy in the score and it cannot be resolved, the running score shall be official.

Section II—Timing

  1. All periods of regulation play in the NBA will be twelve minutes.
  2. All overtime periods of play will be five minutes.
  3. Fifteen minutes will be permitted between halves of all games.
  4. 2:30 will be permitted between the first and second periods, the third and fourth periods and before any overtime period during local games.  For national TV games 3:30 will be permitted between the first and second periods, the third and fourth periods and 2:30 before any overtime period.
  5. A team is permitted a total of 30 seconds to replace a disqualified player.
  6. The game is considered to be in the two-minute part when the game clock shows 2:00 or less time remaining in the period.
  7. The publicaddress operator is required to announce that there are two minutes remaining in each period.
  8. The game clock shall be equipped to show tenths-of-a-second during the last minute of each period.

Section III—End of Period

  1. Each period ends when time expires.
    1.  EXCEPTIONS:
      1. If a field goal attempt is in flight toward the basket, the period ends when the goal is made, missed or touched by an offensive player.
      2. If the official’s whistle sounds prior to :00.0 on the clock, the period is not over and time must be added to the clock.
      3. If a field goal attempt is in flight toward the basket when the horn sounds ending a period, and it subsequently is touched by: (a) a defensive player, the goal, if successful, shall count; or (b) an offensive player, the period has ended.
      4. If a timeout request is made as time expires for a period, the period ends and the timeout shall not be granted.
      5. If there is a foul called on or by a player in the act of shooting the period will end after the foul is penalized (See Rule 13—II—b(ii)).
  2. If the ball is dead and the game clock shows :00.0, the period has ended even though the horn may not have sounded.
    1. EXCEPTION: See Rule 13—II—b(ii)

Section IV—Tie Score—Overtime

If the score is tied at the end of the fourth period, play shall resume in 2:30 without change of baskets for any of the overtime periods required.

Section V—Stoppage of Timing Devices

  1. The timing devices shall be stopped whenever the official’s whistle sounds.
  2. The timing devices shall be stopped:
    1. During the last minute of the first, second and third periods following a successful field goal attempt.
    2. During the last two minutes of regulation play and/or last two minutes of over- time(s) following a successful field goal attempt.
  3. Officials may not use official time to permit a player to change or repair equipment.

Section VI—Timeouts – Mandatory/Team

  1. Each team is entitled to seven (7) charged timeouts during regulation play. Each team is limited to no more than four (4) timeouts in the fourth period. Each team will be limited to two (2) team timeouts after the later of (i) the three-minute mark of the fourth period or (ii) the  conclusion of the  second mandatory timeout of the fourth period.
  2. In overtime periods, each team shall be allowed two (2) team timeouts.
  3. There must be two mandatory timeouts in each period.
    1. If neither team has taken a timeout prior to 6:59 of the period, it shall be mandatory for the Official Scorer to take it at the first dead ball and charge it to the home team. If no subsequent timeouts are taken prior to 2:59, it shall be mandatory for the Official Scorer to take it and charge it to the team not previously charged.
    2. The Official Scorer shall notify a team when it has been charged with a mandatory time-out.
    3. Mandatory timeouts shall be 2:45 for local games and 3:15 for national games.  Any additional team timeouts in a period beyond those which are mandatory shall be 1:15.
    4. No mandatory timeout may be charged during an official’s suspension-of-play.
      1. EXCEPTION: Suspension-of-play for Infection Control. See Comments on the Rules—N
  4. A request for a timeout by a player in the game or the head coach shall be granted only when the ball is dead or in control of a player on the team making the request. A request at any other time shall be ignored.
  5. During a timeout, all substitutions are legal for both teams.
  6. This rule may be used for any reason, including a request for a rule If the correction is sustained, no timeout shall be charged.
  7. If a timeout is charged to the offensive team during the last two minutes of the fourth period and/or last two minutes of any overtime period and (1) the ball is out-of-bounds in the backcourt (except for a suspension of play after the team had advanced the ball), or (2) after securing the ball from a rebound in the backcourt and prior to any advance of the ball, or (3) after the offensive team secures the ball from a change of possession in the backcourt and prior to any advance of the ball, the timeout should be granted. Upon resumption of play, the team granted the timeout shall have the option of putting the ball into play at the 28’ hash mark in the frontcourt or at the designated spot out-of-bounds. If the ball is put into play at the hash mark, the ball may be passed into either the frontcourt or If it is passed into the backcourt, the team will receive a new 8-second count.  However, once the ball is (1) thrown in from out-of-bounds, or (2) dribbled or passed after receiving it from a rebound or a change of possession, the timeout shall be granted, and, upon resumption of play, the ball shall be in-bounded on the sideline where play was interrupted. In order for the option to be available following these conditions, a second timeout must be granted to the offensive team.  The time on the game clock and the shot clock shall remain as when the timeout was called.
  8. A timeout shall not be granted to the defensive team during an official’s suspension- of-play.
    1. EXCEPTION: Suspension of play for Infection Control. See Comments on the Rules-N.
  9. If a player is injured as a result of a player on the opposing team committing a flagrant foul or unsportsmanlike act, play will resume when playing conditions are safe and no timeout will be charged, unless a mandatory is due, as a result of any delay due to the player’s injury.
  10. If a team calls a timeout because one of its players is injured and, at the expiration of the timeout play is unable to resume due to that player ’s injury, play will resume when playing conditions are safe.
  11. Requests for a timeout in excess of those available to the team at that point in the game (as set forth in subsection (a)) shall be granted and a technical foul shall be Following the timeout, the ball will be awarded to the opposing team and play shall resume with a throw-in nearest the spot where play was interrupted.
  12. If a team has no timeouts remaining and a player is injured and cannot be removed from the playing court during a stoppage of play, no excessive timeout will be charged and play will resume when playing conditions are safe.

Section VII—Timeout Requests

  1. If an official, upon receiving a timeout request by the defensive team, inadvertently signals while the play is in progress, play shall be suspended and the team in possession shall put the ball in play immediately at the sideline nearest where the ball was when the signal was given. The game and shot clock shall remain the same.
  2. If an official, upon receiving a timeout request from the defensive team, inadvertently signals for a timeout during the act of shooting but prior to the release of the ball on:
    1. a successful field goal or free throw attempt, the point(s) shall be scored.
    2. an unsuccessful field goal attempt, the offensive team shall put the ball in play immediately at the sideline nearest where the ball was when the signal was given.
    3. an unsuccessful free throw attempt, the official shall rule disconcerting and award a substitute free throw.
  3. If an official, upon receiving a timeout request, inadvertently signals for a timeout:
    1. after the ball is released during a successful field goal or free throw attempt, the points shall be scored.
    2. while the ball is loose or after the ball is released during an unsuccessful field goal or free throw attempt which will remain in play, play shall be resumed with a jump ball at the center circle between any two opponents in the game.
  4. When a team is granted a timeout, play shall not resume until the Time-out Clock has expired. The throw-in shall be nearest the spot where play was suspended. The throw-in shall be on the sideline, if the ball was in play when the request was granted.
  5. A player shall not be granted any timeout if both of his feet are in the air and any part of his body has broken the vertical plane of the boundary line. This rule also applies to the midcourt line except during throw-ins in the last two minutes of the fourth or last two minutes of any overtime period.
  6. A timeout can be granted only at the time of the request.

Section VIII—Time-In

  1. After time has been out, the game clock shall be started:
    1. On a free throw that is unsuccessful and the ball continues in play, the game clock shall be started when the missed free throw is legally touched by any player.
    2. If play is resumed by a throw-in from out-of-bounds, the game clock shall be started when the ball is legally touched by any player within the playing area of the court.
    3. If play is resumed with a jump ball, the game clock shall be started when the ball is legally tapped.

RULE NO. 7: Shot Clock

Section I—Definition

The ‘shot clock’ shall refer to the timing device that displays a countdown of the time within which the team possessing the ball must attempt a field goal.  The shot clock shall start at 24 seconds unless otherwise provided in Rule 7.  The shot clock shall be displayed in seconds, except tenths of seconds will also be displayed once the shot clock reaches 4.9 seconds.

Section II—Starting and Stopping of Shot Clock

  1. The shot clock will start when a team gains new possession of a ball which is in play.
  2. On a throw-in, the shot clock shall start when the ball is legally touched on the court by a player.
  3. Following a jump ball or missed free throw, the shot clock shall start when new possession is obtained.
  4. After gaining possession of the ball, a team must attempt a field goal before the shot clock expires. To constitute a legal field goal attempt, the following conditions must be complied with:
    1. The ball must leave the player’s hand prior to the expiration of the shot clock.
    2. After leaving the player’s hand(s), the ball must make contact with the basket ring.
  5. A team is considered in possession of the ball when holding, passing or dribbling.  The team is considered in possession of the ball even though the ball has been batted away but the opponent has not gained possession.
  6. Team possession ends when:
    • The ball hits the rim of the offensive team
    • The opponent gains possession
  7. If a ball is touched by a defensive player who does not gain possession of the ball, the shot clock shall continue to run.
  8. If a defensive player is the last to touch the ball before going out-of-bounds or entering the basket ring from below, the shot clock is stopped and the offensive team shall be awarded the ball.  The offensive team shall have only the unexpired time remaining on the shot clock in which to attempt a field goal. If the shot clock reads 0, a shot clock violation has occurred, even though the horn may not have sounded.
  9. If during any period there are 24 seconds OR LESS left to play in the period, the shot clock shall not function following a change of possession; provided, however, the shot clock shall be reactivated and reset to 14 seconds when any of the situations described in Section IV—d below occur.
  10. If an official inadvertently blows his/her whistle and the shot clock buzzer sounds while the ball is in the air, play shall be suspended and play resumed by a jump ball between any two opponents at the center circle, if the shot hits the rim and is If the shot does not hit the rim, a shot clock violation has occurred. If the shot is successful, the goal shall count and the ball inbounded as after any successful field goal. It should be noted that even though the official blows his/her whistle, all provisions of the above rule apply.
  11. If there is a question whether or not an attempt to score has been before the shot clock expires, the final decision shall be made by the of See Rule 13—Section I—a—8.
  12. Whenever the shot clock reads 0 and the ball is dead for any reason other than a defensive three-second violation, kicking violation, punched ball violation, personal foul or a technical foul by the defensive team, a shot clock violation has occurred.

Section III—Putting Ball In Play After Violation

If a team fails to attempt a field goal within the time allotted, a shot clock violation shall be called. The ball is awarded to the defensive team on the sideline, nearest the spot where play was suspended but no nearer to the baseline than the free throw line extended.

Section IV—Resetting Shot Clock

  1. The shot clock shall be reset when a special situation occurs which warrants such action.
  2. The shot clock is never reset on the following:
    1. Defensive player is the last to touch the ball before going out-of-bounds or entering the basket ring from below
    2. Technical fouls or delay-of-game warning on the offensive team
    3. Jump ball is retossed as a result of a poor toss, double violation or correctable error
    4. Suspension-of-play (except for infection control)
    5. Field goal attempt which fails to touch the rim
    6. Jump balls which are the result of a held ball caused by the defense
  3. The shot clock shall be reset to 24 seconds anytime the following occurs:
    1. Change of possession from one team to another
    2. Personal foul where ball is being inbounded in backcourt
    3. Violation where ball is being inbounded in backcourt
    4. Jump balls which are not the result of a held ball caused by the defense
    5. All flagrant and punching fouls
  4. The shot clock shall be reset to 14 seconds anytime the following occurs:
    1. The offensive team is the first to gain possession after an unsuccessful free throw that remains in play, or an unsuccessful field goal attempt that contacts the basket ring
    2. A loose ball foul is called on the defensive team in the sequence immediately following an unsuccessful free throw that remains in play, or an unsuccessful field goal attempt that contacts the basket ring; provided that, as a result of the foul, the offensive team inbounds the ball in the frontcourt (NOTE: If, as a result of a defensive foul, the offensive team inbounds the ball in the backcourt, Rule 7—Section IV—c—2 applies)
    3. The offensive team retains possession after the ball goes out of bounds in the sequence immediately following an unsuccessful free throw that remains in play, or an unsuccessful field goal attempt that contacts the basket ring
      1. NOTE:  For purposes of Rule 7—Section IV—d only, an “unsuccessful field goal attempt that contacts the basket ring” shall include any live ball from the playing court that contacts the basket ring of the team which is in possession.
  5. The shot clock shall remain the same as when play was interrupted or reset to 14 seconds, whichever is greater, anytime the following occurs:
    1. Personal foul by the defense where ball is being inbounded in frontcourt EXCEPTION: Rule 7—Section IV—d—2
    2. Defensive three-second violation
    3. Technical fouls and/or delay-of-game warnings on the defensive team
    4. Kicked or punched ball by the defensive team with the ball being inbounded in the offensive team’s frontcourt
    5. Infection control
    6. Jump balls retained by the offensive team as the result of any violation by the defensive team during a jump ball which results in a frontcourt throw-in

RULE NO. 8: Out-of-Bounds and Throw-In

Section I—Player

The player is out-of-bounds when he touches the floor or any object on or outside a boundary. For location of a player in the air, his position is that from which he last touched the floor. The last part of the foot/feet which is in contact with the floor on his last step prior to jumping over the midcourt line or three-point line shall determine his location.

Section II—Ball

  1. The ball is out-of-bounds when it touches a player who is out-of-bounds or any other person, the floor, or any object on, above or outside of a boundary or the supports or back of the backboard.
  2. Any ball that rebounds or passes directly behind the backboard, in any direction, or enters the cylinder from below is considered out-of-bounds.
  3. The ball is caused to go out-of-bounds by the last player to touch it (including by touching the player’s hair or uniform) before it goes out, provided it is out-of-bounds because of touching something other than a player. If the ball is out-of-bounds because of touching a player who is on or outside a boundary, such player caused it to go out. If a player has his hand in contact with the ball and an opponent hits that part of the hand causing the ball to go out-of-bounds, the team whose player had his hand on the ball will retain possession.
  4. If the ball goes out-of-bounds and was last touched simultaneously by two opponents, both of whom are inbounds or out-of-bounds, or if the official is in doubt as to who last touched the ball, or if the officials disagree, play shall be resumed by a jump ball between the two involved players in the nearest restraining circle.
    1. EXCEPTION: Rule 6—Section V—a(10) and Rule 13—Section I—a(7)
  5. If the ball is interfered with by an opponent seated on the bench or standing on the sideline (Rule 12A—Section II—a(7)), it shall be awarded to the offended team out-of- bounds nearest the spot of the violation.

Section III—The Throw-In

  1. The throw-in starts when the ball is given to the player entitled to the throw-in. He shall release the ball within 5 seconds from the time he receives the ball and controls it. Until the passed ball has crossed the plane of the boundary, no player shall have any part of his person over the boundary line and teammates shall not occupy positions parallel or adjacent to the baseline if an opponent desires one of those positions. The defensive man shall have the right to be between his man and the basket.
  2. On a throw-in which goes out of bounds and is not touched by a player in the game, the ball is returned to the original throw-in spot.
  3. After a score, field goal or free throw, the latter coming as the result of a personal foul, any player of the team not credited with the score shall put the ball into play from any point out-of-bounds at the endline of the court where the point(s) were scored. He may pass the ball to a teammate behind the endline; however, the five-second throw-in rule This rule also applies to the player of the team with possession at the start of the second, third and fourth periods.
  4. After a free throw violation by the shooter or his teammate, the throw-in is made from out-of-bounds on either side of the free throw line extended.
  5. Any ball out-of-bounds in a team’s frontcourt or at the midcourt line cannot be passed into the backcourt. On all backcourt and midcourt violations, the ball shall be awarded to the opposing team at the midcourt line, and must be passed into the frontcourt.
    1. EXCEPTION: During the last two minutes of the fourth period and the last two minutes of any overtime period, the ball may be passed anywhere (frontcourt or backcourt) on the court. However, if the ball is thrown into the frontcourt and an offensive player on the court fails to control the ball and causes it to go into the backcourt, his team may not be the first to touch the ball.
  6. A throw-in which touches the floor, or any object on or outside the boundary line, or touches anything above the playing surface is a violation. The ball must be thrown directly inbounds.
    1. EXCEPTION: Rule 8—Section III—c.
    2. PENALTY: Violation of this rule is loss of possession, and the ball must be inbounded at the previous spot of the throw-in.

RULE NO. 9: Free Throws and Penalties

Section I—Positions and Violations

  1. When a free throw is awarded, an official shall put the ball in play by delivering it to the free throw shooter. The shooter shall be above the free throw line and within the upper half of the free throw He shall attempt the free throw within 10 seconds of controlling the ball in such a way that the ball enters the basket or touches the ring.
    1. PENALTY: If there is a violation and the free throw attempt is to remain in play, the opposing team shall inbound on either sideline at the free throw line extended. If both teams commit a violation during this free throw, a jump ball shall be administered at midcourt between any two opponents in the game. If the opponent’s violation is disconcertion, then a substitute free throw shall be awarded.
    2. If there is a violation and the free throw attempt is not to remain in play, then play will continue from that point. If an opponent also commits a violation (double violation), then play will also continue from that point. If the opponent’s violation is disconcertion, then a substitute free throw shall be awarded.
  2. The free throw shooter may not step over the plane of the free throw line until the ball touches the basket ring, backboard or the free throw ends.
    1. PENALTY: This is a violation by the shooter on all free throw attempts and no point can be scored.
    2. If there is a violation and the free throw attempt is to remain in play, the opposing team shall inbound on either sideline at the free throw line extended. If both teams commit a violation during this free throw, a jump ball shall be administered at midcourt between any two opponents in the game.
    3. If there is a violation and the free throw attempt is not to remain in play, then play will continue from that point. If an opponent also commits a violation (double violation), then play will also continue from that point.
  3. The free throw shooter shall not purposely fake a free throw attempt.
    1. PENALTY:  This is a violation by the shooter on all free throw attempts and a double violation should not be called if an opponent violates any free throw rules.
    2. If the free throw attempt is to remain in play, the opposing team shall inbound on either sideline at the free throw line extended.
    3. If the free throw attempt  is  not  to  remain  in  play,  then  play  will  continue  from that  point.
  4. During a free throw attempt for a common foul, each of the spaces nearest the end- line must be occupied by an opponent of the free throw shooter. Teammates of the free throw shooter must occupy the next adjacent spaces on each Only one of the third spaces may be occupied by an opponent of the free throw shooter. It is not mandatory that either of the third spaces be occupied by an opponent but may not be occupied by a teammate. If there is a discrepancy, teammates of the free throw shooter will occupy the spaces first.  Players occupying lane spaces may not extend themselves over their lane spaces in front of an opponent or be touching the lane line or floor inside the line when the ball is released by the shooter. They may not vacate their lane space more than 3’ from the lane line before the ball is released.  Players not occupying lane spaces must remain on the court behind the three point line above the free throw line extended and may not be touching the line or floor inside the line when the ball is released.
    1. PENALTY:  If the free throw attempt is to remain in play and a teammate of the shooter violates, no point can be scored and the opposing team will inbound on either sideline at the free throw line extended. If an opponent violates, the shooter shall receive a substitute free throw if his attempt is unsuccessful but shall be ignored if the attempt is successful. If a teammate and opponent both violate, a jump ball shall be administered at midcourt between any two opponents in the game.
    2. If the free throw attempt is not to remain in play, no violation can occur regardless of which player or players violate since no advantage is gained unless there is a disconcertion violation by an opponent to which a substitute free throw will be awarded.
  5. If the ball is to become dead after the last free throw attempt, players shall not occupy positions along the free throw lanes. All players must remain on the court behind the three point line above the free throw line extended until the ball is released.
    1. PENALTY:  No violations can occur regardless of which player or players violate since no advantage is gained unless there is a disconcertion violation by an opponent to which a substitute free throw will be awarded.
  6. During all free throw attempts, no opponent in the game shall disconcert the shooter once the ball is placed at his disposal. The following are acts of disconcertion:
    • Raising his arms when positioned on the lane line on a free throw which will not remain in play,
    • Waving his arms or making a sudden movement when in the visual field of the shooter during any free throw attempt,
    • Talking to the free throw shooter or talking in a loud disruptive manner during any free throw
    • Entering the lane and continuing to move during any free throw
      • PENALTY:  No penalty is assessed if the free throw is successful. A substitute free throw will be administered if the attempt is unsuccessful.
  7. A player shall not touch the ball or the basket ring when the ball is using the basket ring as its lower base nor touch the ball while it is in the imaginary cylinder above the ring after touching the basket ring or backboard.
    1. PENALTY: If the free throw attempt is to remain in play and a teammate of the shooter violates, no point can be scored and the opposing team will inbound on either sideline at the free throw line extended. If an opponent violates, one point shall be scored and play will continue as after any successful free throw with the official administering the throw-in.
    2. If the free throw attempt is not to remain in play, no point can be scored if the violation is by a teammate and the shooter will attempt his next free throw. One point shall be scored if the violation is by an opponent and the shooter will attempt his next free throw.
  8. No player shall touch the ball before it touches the basket ring or backboard
    1. PENALTY:  If the free throw attempt is to remain in play and a teammate of the shooter violates, no point can be scored and the opposing team will inbound on either sideline at the free throw line extended. If an opponent violates, one point shall be scored and an additional free throw shall be awarded the same shooter.
    2. If the free throw attempt is not to remain in play, no point can be scored if the violation is by a teammate and the shooter will attempt his next free throw. One point shall be scored if the violation is by an opponent and the shooter will attempt his next free throw.
      1. During all free throw attempts, if an official suspends play before the free throw attempt is released, no violations can occur.

Section II—Shooting of Free Throw

  1. The free throw(s) awarded because of a personal foul shall be attempted by the offended player.
    1. EXCEPTIONS:
      1. If the offended player is injured, other than as a result of a flagrant foul or unsportsmanlike conduct, or is ejected from the game and cannot attempt the awarded free throw(s), the opposing coach shall select, from his opponent’s bench, the replacement player. That player will attempt the free throw(s) and the injured player will not be permitted to re-enter the game. The substitute must remain in the game until the ball is legally touched by a player on the court.
    2. EXCEPTION: Rule 3—Section V—e
      1. If the offended player is injured and unable to attempt the awarded free throw(s) as a result of a flagrant foul-penalty (1) and/or as a result of a medical determination that a player must undergo a concussion evaluation, his coach may designate any player in the game at that time to attempt the free throw(s). The injured player will not be permitted to re-enter the game; except that the player will be permitted to reenter if he was removed for a concussion evaluation, completed the evaluation required pursuant to the NBA Concussion Policy, and is deemed not to have a concussion.
      2. If the offended player is injured and unable to attempt the awarded free throw(s) due to any unsportsmanlike act, his coach may designate any eligible member of the squad to attempt the free throw(s). The injured player will be permitted to reenter the game.
      3. If the offended player is disqualified and unable to attempt the awarded free throw(s), his coach shall designate an eligible substitute from the bench.  That substitute will attempt the free throw(s) and cannot be removed until the ball is legally touched by a player on the court.
    3. EXCEPTION: Rule 3—Section V—e
      1. Away from play foul—Rule 12B—Section X-a(1).
  2. A free throw attempt, personal or technical, shall be illegal if an official does not handle the ball.
  3. If multiple free throws are awarded, all those which remain must be attempted, if the first and/or second attempt is nullified by an offensive player’s violation.
  4. If a timeout is granted prior to a free throw attempt, the free throw will be attempted following the timeout.

Section III—Next Play

After a successful free throw which is not followed by another free throw, the ball shall be put into play by a throw-in, as after any successful field goal.

EXCEPTION: After a free throw for a foul which occurs during a dead ball which immediately precedes any period, the ball shall be put into play by the team entitled to the throw-in in the period which follows. (See Rule 6—Section I—b). This includes flagrant and punching fouls.

RULE NO. 10: Violations and Penalties

Section I—Out-of-Bounds

  1. A player shall not be the last to touch the ball before it goes out-of-bounds.
    1. PENALTY: Loss of ball. The ball is awarded to the opposing team at the boundary line nearest the spot of the violation.
    2. EXCEPTION: On a throw-in which goes out of bounds and is not touched by a player in the game, the ball is returned to the original throw-in spot.

Section II—Dribble

  1. A player shall not run with the ball without dribbling it.
  2. A player in control of a dribble who steps on or outside a boundary line, even though not touching the ball while on or outside that boundary line, shall not be allowed to return inbounds and continue his dribble. He may not even be the first player to touch the ball after he has re-established a position inbounds.
  3. A player may not dribble a second time after he has voluntarily ended his first dribble.
  4. A player who is dribbling may not put any part of his hand under the ball and (1) carry it from one point to another or (2) bring it to a pause and then continue to dribble again.
  5. A player may dribble a second time if he lost control of the ball because of:
    1. A field goal attempt at his basket, provided the ball touches the backboard or basket ring
    2. An opponent touching the ball
    3. A pass or fumble which touches his backboard, basket ring or is touched by another player.
      1. PENALTY: Loss of ball. Ball is awarded to the opposing team on the sideline nearest the spot of the violation but no nearer the baseline than the foul line extended.

Section III—Thrower-in

A thrower-in shall not (1) carry the ball onto the court; (2) fail to release the ball within 5 seconds; (3) touch it on the court before it has touched another player; (4) leave the designated throw-in spot which is one step to his left or right; (5) throw the ball so that it enters the basket before touching anyone on the court; (6) step on the court over the boundary line before the ball is released; (7) throw the ball out-of-bounds without it being touched by a player in the game; (8) exit the playing surface to gain an advantage on a throw-in; (9) hand the ball to a player on the court.

  1. EXCEPTION: After a field goal or free throw as a result of a personal foul or the start of a period, the thrower-in may run the end line or pass to a teammate behind the end line.
  2. PENALTY: Loss of ball. The ball is awarded to the opposing team at the original spot of the throw-in.

Section IV—Strike the Ball

  1. A player shall not kick the ball or strike it with the fist.
  2. Kicking the ball or striking it with any part of the leg is a violation when it is an intentional act.  The ball accidentally striking the foot, the leg or fist is not a violation.
  3. A player may not use any part of his leg to intentionally move or secure the ball.
    1. PENALTY:
      1. If the violation is by the offense, the ball is awarded to the opposing team on the sideline nearest the spot of the violation but no nearer to the baseline than the free throw line extended.
      2. If the violation is by the defense while the ball is in play, the offensive team retains possession of the ball on the sideline nearest the spot of the violation but no nearer the baseline than the foul line extended.
      3. If the violation occurs during a throw-in, the opposing team retains possession at the spot of the original throw-in with all privileges, if any,

Section V—Jump Ball

  1. A player shall not violate the jump ball rule (Rule 6—Section VII).
  2. During a jump ball, a personal foul committed prior to either team obtaining possession, shall be ruled a “loose ball” foul.
    1. If the violation or foul occurs prior to the ball being legally tapped, neither the game clock or shot clock shall be started.
    2. PENALTY:
      1. In (a) above, the ball is awarded to the opposing team on the sideline nearest the spot of the violation.
      2. In (a) above, if there is a violation by each team, or if the official makes a bad toss, the toss shall be repeated with the same jumpers.
      3. In (b) above, free throws may or may not be awarded, consistent with whether the penalty is in effect (Rule 12B—Section VIII).

Section VI—Offensive Three-Second Rule

  1. An offensive player shall not remain for more than three seconds in that part of his free throw lane between the endline and extended 4’ (imaginary) off the court and the farther edge of the free throw line while the ball is in control of his team.
  2. Allowance may be made for a player who, having been in this area for less than three seconds, is in the act of shooting at the end of the third second. Under these conditions, the 3-second count is discontinued while his continuous motion is toward the basket. If that continuous motion ceases, the previous 3-second count is continued. This is also true if it is imminent the offensive player will exit this area.
  3. The 3-second count shall not begin until the ball is in control in the offensive team’s frontcourt. No violation can occur if the ball is batted away by an opponent.
    1. PENALTY: Loss of ball. The ball is awarded to the opposing team on the sideline at the free throw line extended.

Section VII—Defensive Three-Second Rule

  1. The count starts when the offensive team is in control of the ball in the frontcourt.
  2. Any defensive player, who is positioned in the 16-foot lane or the area extending 4 feet past the lane endline, must be actively guarding an opponent within three seconds.  Actively guarding means being within arm’s length of an offensive player and in a guarding position.
  3. Any defensive player may play any offensive player. The defenders may double-team any player.
  4. The defensive three-second count is suspended when: (1) a player is in the act of shooting, (2) there is a loss of team control, (3) the defender is actively guarding an opponent, (4) the defender completely clears the 16-foot lane or (5) it is imminent the defender will become legal.
  5. If the defender is guarding the player with the ball, he may be located in the 16-foot lane. This defender is not required to be in an actively guarding/arms distance position. If another defender actively guards the player with the ball, the original defender must actively guard an opponent or exit the 16-foot lane. Once the offensive player passes the ball, the defender must actively guard an opponent or exit the 16-foot lane.
    1. PENALTY: A technical foul shall be assessed. The offensive team retains possession on the sideline at the free throw line extended nearest the point of interruption. The shot clock shall remain the same as when play was interrupted or reset to 14 seconds, whichever is greater.
    2. If a violation is whistled during a successful field goal attempt, the violation shall be ignored and play shall resume as after any successful basket.

Section VIII—Eight-Second Rule

A team shall not be in continuous possession of a ball which is in its backcourt for more than 8 consecutive seconds.

  1. EXCEPTION (1): A new 8 seconds is awarded if the defense: (1) kicks or punches the ball, (2) is assessed a personal or technical foul, or (3) is issued a delay of game warning.
  2. EXCEPTION (2): A new 8 seconds is awarded: (1) if play is suspended to administer Comments on the Rules—N—Infection Control, (2) when a team gains control of a jump ball in the backcourt, or (3) during a frontcourt throw-in into the backcourt in the last two minutes of the fourth and last two minutes of any overtime period.
  3. PENALTY: Loss of ball. The ball is awarded to the opposing team at the midcourt line.

Section IX—Ball in Backcourt

  1. A player shall not be the first to touch a ball which he or a teammate caused to go from frontcourt to backcourt while his team was in control of the ball.
    1. EXCEPTION: Rule 8—Section III—e.
  2. During a jump ball, a try for a goal, or a situation in which a player taps the ball away from a congested area, as during rebounding, in an attempt to get the ball out where player control may be secured, the ball is not in control of either team. Hence, the restriction on first touching does not apply.
    1. PENALTY: Loss of ball. The ball is awarded to the opposing team at the midcourt line.

Section X—Swinging of Elbows

A player shall not be allowed excessive and/or vigorous swinging of the elbows in swinging motion (no contact) when a defensive player is nearby and the offensive player has the ball.

  1. PENALTY: Loss of ball. The ball is awarded to the opposing team on the sideline, near- est the spot of the violation but no nearer the baseline than the foul line extended.

Section XI—Entering Basket From Below

A player shall not be the last to touch a ball which rises above the rim level within the cylinder from below.

  1. PENALTY: Loss of ball. The ball is awarded to the opposing team on the sideline at the free throw line extended.

Section XII—Illegal Assist in Scoring

  1. A player may not assist himself in an attempt to score by using any part of the rim, net, backboard or basket support to lift, hold or raise himself.
  2. A player may not assist a teammate to gain height while attempting to score.
    1. PENALTY: Loss of ball. The ball is awarded to the opposing team on the sideline at the free throw line extended.

Section XIII—Traveling

  1. A player who receives the ball while standing still may pivot, using either foot as the pivot foot.
  2. A player who gathers the ball while progressing may take (1) two steps in coming to a stop, passing or shooting the ball, or (2) if he has not yet dribbled, one step prior to releasing the ball. A player who gathers the ball while dribbling may take two steps in coming to a stop, passing, or shooting the ball.
    1. The first step occurs when a foot, or both feet, touch the floor after gaining control of the ball.
    2. The second step occurs after the first step when the other foot touches the floor, or both feet touch the floor simultaneously.
    3. A player who comes to a stop on step one when both feet are on the floor or touch the floor simultaneously may pivot using either foot as his pivot. If he jumps with both feet he must release the ball before either foot touches the floor.
    4. A player who lands with one foot first may only pivot using that foot.
    5. A progressing player who jumps off one foot on the first step may land with both feet simultaneously for the second step. In this situation, the player may not pivot with either foot and if one or both feet leave the floor the ball must be released before either returns to the floor.
  3. In starting a dribble after (1) receiving the ball while standing still, or (2) coming to a legal stop, the ball must be out of the player’s hand before the pivot foot is raised off the floor.
  4. If a player, with the ball in his possession, raises his pivot foot off the floor, he must pass or shoot before his pivot foot returns to the floor. If he drops the ball while in the air, he may not be the first to touch the ball.
  5. A player who falls to the floor while holding the ball, or while coming to a stop, may not gain an advantage by sliding.
  6. A player who attempts a field goal may not be the first to touch the ball if it fails to touch the backboard, basket ring or another player.
  7. A player may not be the first to touch his own pass unless the ball touches his back- board, basket ring or another player.
  8. Upon ending his dribble or gaining control of the ball, a player may not touch the floor consecutively with the same foot (hop).
    1. PENALTY: Loss of ball. The ball is awarded to the opposing team on the sideline, nearest spot of the violation but no nearer the baseline than the foul line extended.

Section XIV—Offensive Screen Set Out-of-Bounds

An offensive player shall not leave the playing area of the floor on the endline in the frontcourt for the purpose of setting a screen.

  1. PENALTY: Loss of ball. The ball is awarded to the opposing team on the sideline at the point of interruption but no nearer to the baseline than the foul line extended.

Section XV—Offensive Player Out-of-Bounds

An offensive player shall not leave the playing area of the court without returning immediately and cannot repeatedly leave and re-enter the court.

  1. EXCEPTION: (1) injury, (2) inbounding the ball on a throw-in and (3) any other unusual circumstance.
  2. PENALTY: Loss of ball. The ball is awarded to the opposing team on the sideline at the point of interruption but no nearer to the baseline than the foul line extended.

Section XVI—Five-Second Back-to-the-Basket Violation

An offensive player in his frontcourt below the free throw line extended shall not be permitted to dribble with his back or side to the basket for more than five seconds.

The count ends when (1) the player picks up the ball, (2) dribbles above the free throw line extended or (3) a defensive player deflects the ball away.

  1. PENALTY: Loss of ball. The ball is awarded to the opposing team out-of-bounds on the nearest sideline at the free throw line extended.

RULE NO. 11: Basket Interference – Goaltending

Section I—A Player Shall Not:

  1. Touch the ball or the basket ring when the ball is sitting or rolling on the ring and using the basket ring as its lower base or hang on the rim while the ball is passing through.
    1. EXCEPTION: If a player near his own basket has his hand legally in contact with the ball, it is not a violation if his contact with the ball continues after the ball enters the cylinder, or if, in such action, he touches the basket.
  2. Touch any ball from within the playing area when it is above the basket ring and within the imaginary cylinder.
  3. During a field goal attempt, touch a ball, which has a chance to score, after it has touched any part of the backboard above ring level, whether the ball is considered on its upward or downward flight.
  4. During a field goal attempt, touch a ball, which has a chance to score, after it has touched the backboard below the ring level and while the ball is on its upward flight.
  5. Trap the ball against the face of the backboard after it has been released. (To be a trapped ball, three elements must exist simultaneously. The hand, the ball and the backboard must all occur at the same time. A batted ball against the backboard is not a trapped ball.)
  6. Touch any ball from within the playing area that is on its downward flight with an opportunity to score.  This is considered to be a “field goal attempt” or trying for a goal.
  7. Touch the ball at any time with a hand which is through the basket ring.
  8. Vibrate the rim, net or backboard so as to cause the ball to make an unnatural bounce, or bend or move the rim to an off-center position when the ball is touching the ring or passing through.
  9. Touch the rim, net or ball while the ball is in the net, preventing it from clearing the basket.
    1. PENALTY: If the violation is at the opponent’s basket, the offended team is awarded two points, if the attempt is from the two point zone and three points if it is from the three-point zone. The crediting of the score and subsequent procedure is the same as if the awarded score has resulted from the ball having gone through the basket, except that the official shall hand the ball to a player of the team entitled to the throw-in. If the violation is at a team’s own basket, no points can be scored and the ball is awarded to the offended team at the free throw line extended on either sideline. If there is a violation by both teams, no points can be scored, play shall be resumed by a jump ball between any two opponents in the game at the center circle.

RULE NO. 12: Fouls and Penalties

Technical Foul

  1. Excessive Timeouts
  2. Delay-of-Game
  3. Number of Players
  4. Basket Ring, Backboard or Support
  5. Conduct
  6. Fighting Fouls
  7. Fines

A.        Technical Foul

Section I—Excessive Timeouts

  1. Requests for a timeout in excess of the authorized number shall be granted and a technical foul shall be assessed. Following the timeout and free throw attempt, the ball will be awarded to the team which shot the free throw and play shall resume with a throw-in nearest the spot where play was interrupted.
  2. If the excessive timeout is granted prior to free throw attempt(s), there will be no line-up for the remaining free throws and play shall resume with a throw-in at the point of interruption by the team which shot the technical foul.
  3. If the excessive timeout is granted prior to a jump ball, the ball shall be awarded to the team shooting the technical foul at the point of interruption.

Section II—Delay-of-Game

  1. A delay-of-game shall be called for:
    1. Preventing the ball from being promptly put into play.
    2. Interfering with the ball after a successful field goal or free throw.
    3. Failing to immediately pass the ball to the nearest official when a personal foul or violation is assessed.
    4. Touching the ball before the throw-in has been released.
    5. A defender crossing the boundary line within the designated throw-in spot prior to the ball being released on a throw-in.
    6. A team preventing play from commencing at any time.
    7. Any player, coach or trainer interfering with a ball which has crossed the boundary line (Rule 8—Section II—e).
    8. A free throw shooter venturing fully beyond the three-point line between attempts.
    9. A player entering the game when beckoned by an official with his shirt untucked.
      1. PENALTY: The first offense is a warning. A technical foul shall be assessed with each successive offense and charged to the team. An announcement will be made by the public address announcer. The shot clock shall remain the same or reset to 14, whichever is greater, if the violation is assessed against the defensive team. The offensive team shall be awarded a new 8 seconds to advance the ball if it is in the backcourt. There is no change in timing status if any of these violations are assessed against the offensive team. If repeated acts become a travesty, the head coach shall be notified that he is being held responsible.
      2. EXCEPTION (5): In the last two minutes of the fourth period and last two minutes of any overtime period, a technical foul will be assessed if the defender crosses or breaks the plane of the boundary line within the designated throw-in spot when an offensive player is in a position to inbound and prior to the ball being released on a throw-in.

Section III—Number of Players

  1. If the ball is put into play and remains in play with one team having six or more players on the court, a non-unsportsmanlike technical foul will be assessed on the team with too many players and such team would lose possession if it had possession at the time the violation was discovered.  Immediately following the free throw awarded for the technical foul, the team with the correct number of players will instruct the Crew Chief to:
    1. resume play from the point in time when the technical foul was assessed, under the same conditions as would have prevailed had there been no error with a throw-in, jump ball or foul shot, as If the ball is to be put into play with a throw-in, the team who shot the free throw will be awarded possession unless that team just scored and the error was discovered prior to the throw-in being released by the team with six or more players.
    2. nullify all play that occurred from the point in time when the ball was put into play with one team having six or more players on the court and ending when the technical foul was assessed, reset the game and shot clock to the point in time when the ball was put into play, and if the ball was put into play by:
      1. a throw-in, the ball shall be returned to the original throw-in spot with the ball awarded to the team with the correct number of players, or
      2. a missed free throw that remained in play, a jump ball shall be held at center court between any two players in the game, or
      3. a jump ball, the ball shall be returned to the original jump ball spot and a jump ball held with the same two
        1. EXCEPTION: Acts of unsportsmanlike conduct and all flagrant fouls, and points scored from any resulting free throws, shall not be nullified.
  2. Other errors involving the wrong number of players at the start of play, four or less, will be penalized with a non-unsportsmanlike technical foul and play shall resume from the point-of-interruption.
    1. EXCEPTION to a and b: If the violation occurs on (1) a free throw attempt which is to be followed by another free throw attempt, or (2) a free throw attempt that is not going to remain in play, (3) throw-in before the ball is released, (4) prior to a personal foul being assessed, or (5) jump ball before the ball is released.

Section IV—Basket Ring, Backboard or Support

  1. An offensive player who deliberately hangs on his basket ring, net, backboard or support during the game shall be assessed a non-unsportsmanlike technical foul.
  2. A defensive player who deliberately gains or maintains height or hangs on his opponent’s basket ring, net, backboard or support shall be assessed a non-unsportsmanlike technical If he touches the ball during a field goal attempt, points shall be awarded consistent with the type of shot.
    1. EXCEPTION: An offensive or defensive player may hang on the basket ring, backboard or support to prevent an injury to himself or another player, with no technical foul assessed.
  3. Should a defensive player deliberately hang on the basket ring, net, backboard or support to successfully touch a ball which is in possession of an opponent, a non- unsportsmanlike technical foul shall be assessed.

Section V—Conduct

  1. An official may assess a technical foul, without prior warning, at any time.  A technical foul(s) may be assessed to any player on the court or anyone seated on the bench for conduct which, in the opinion of an official, is detrimental to the game. The technical foul must be charged to an individual. A technical foul cannot be assessed for physical contact when the ball is alive.
    1. EXCEPTION: Fighting fouls and/or taunting with physical contact.
  2. A maximum of two technical fouls for unsportsmanlike acts may be assessed any player, coach, trainer, or other team bench person. Any of these offenders may be ejected for committing only one unsportsmanlike act, and they must be ejected for committing two unsportsmanlike acts.
  3. A technical foul called for (1) delay of game, (2) coaches box violations, (3) defensive 3-seconds, (4) having a team total of less or more than five players when the ball becomes alive, (5) a player hanging on the basket ring or backboard, (6) participation in the game when not on team’s active list, or (7) shattering the backboard or making the rim unplayable during the game (Comments On the Rules—G) is not considered an act of unsportsmanlike conduct.
  4. A technical foul shall be assessed for unsportsmanlike tactics such as:
    1. Disrespectfully addressing an official
    2. Physically contacting an official
    3. Overt actions indicating resentment to a call or no-call
    4. Use of profanity
    5. A coach entering onto the court without permission of an official
    6. A deliberately-thrown elbow or any unnatural physical act towards an opponent with no contact involved
    7. Taunting
  5. Cursing or blaspheming an official shall not be considered the only cause for imposing technical foul. Running tirades, continuous criticism or griping may be sufficient cause to assess a technical. Excessive misconduct shall result in ejection from the game.
  6. Assessment of a technical foul shall be avoided whenever and wherever possible; but, when necessary they are to be assessed without delay or procrastination.  Once a player has been ejected or the game is over, technical fouls cannot be assessed regardless of the provocation. Any additional unsportsmanlike conduct shall be reported by e-mail immediately to the League Office.
  7. If a technical foul is assessed to a team following a personal foul on the same team, the free throw attempt for the technical foul shall be administered first.
  8. The ball shall be awarded to the team which had possession at the time the technical foul was assessed, whether the free throw attempt is successful or not.  Play shall be resumed by a throw-in nearest the spot where play was interrupted.
    1. EXCEPTION: Rule 12A—Section I and Rule 12A—Section III.
  9. Anyone guilty of illegal contact which occurs during a dead ball may be assessed (1) a technical foul, if the contact is deemed to be unsportsmanlike in nature, or (2) a flagrant foul, if unnecessary and/or excessive contact occurs.
  10. Free throws awarded for a technical foul must be attempted by a player in the game when the technical foul is
    1. If a substitute has been beckoned into the game or has been recognized by the officials as being in the game prior to a technical foul being assessed, he is eligible to attempt the free throw(s).
    2. If the technical foul is assessed before the opening tap, any player listed in the scorebook as a starter is eligible to attempt the free throw(s).
    3. If a technical foul is assessed before the starting lineup is indicated, any player on the squad may attempt the free throw(s).
  11. A technical foul, unsportsmanlike act or flagrant foul must be called for a participant to be ejected.
    1. EXCEPTION: Rule 12A—Section V—l—4
  12. A player, coach, trainer, or other team bench person must be ejected for:
    1. A punching foul
    2. A fighting foul
    3. Technical foul for an attempted punch or swing with no contact or a thrown elbow toward an opponent above shoulder level with no contact
    4. Deliberately entering the stands other than as a continuance of play
    5. Flagrant foul penalty (2)
    6. Second flagrant foul penalty (1)
    7. Participation in the game when not on team’s active list
  13. Eye guarding (placing a hand in front of the opponent’s eyes when guarding from the rear) a player who does not have possession of the ball is illegal and an unsportsmanlike technical shall be assessed.
  14. A free throw attempt is awarded when one technical foul is assessed.
  15. No free throw attempts are awarded when a double technical foul is assessed.  Technical fouls assessed to opposing teams during the same dead ball and prior to the administering of any free throw attempt for the first technical foul, shall be interpreted as a double technical foul.
  16. The deliberate act of throwing the ball or any object at an official by a player, coach, trainer, or other team bench person is a technical foul and violators are subject to ejection from the game.
  17. Punching fouls, although recorded as both personal and team fouls, are unsportsmanlike acts.  The player will be ejected immediately.
  18. Any player who throws or kicks the ball directly into the stands with force, regardless of the reason or where it lands, will be assessed a technical foul and ejected.  All other instances where the ball ends up in the stands will subject the player to a possible technical foul and ejection.

Section VI—Fighting Fouls

  1. Technical fouls shall be assessed players, coaches or trainers for fighting.  No free throws will be attempted. The participants will be ejected immediately.
  2. This rule applies whether play is in progress or the ball is dead.
  3. If a fighting foul occurs with a team in possession of the ball, that team will retain possession on the sideline nearest the spot where play was interrupted but no nearer to the baseline than the free throw line extended.
  4. If a fighting foul occurs with neither team in possession, play will be resumed with a jump ball between any two opponents who were in the game at the center circle.
  5. A fine not exceeding $50,000 and/or suspension may be imposed upon such person(s) by the Commissioner at his sole discretion.

Section VII—Fines

  1. The following progressive technical foul and ejection schedules will apply.*with a warning letter sent when the violator reaches his 10th (5th in playoffs) technical foul
  2. Whether or not said player(s) is ejected, a fine not exceeding $50,000 and/or suspension may be imposed upon such player(s) by the Commissioner at his sole discretion.
  3. During an altercation, all players not participating in the game must remain in the immediate vicinity of their Violators will be subject to suspension, without pay, for a minimum of one game and fined up to $50,000.
    1. The suspensions will commence prior to the start of their next game.
    2. A team must have a minimum of eight players dressed and ready to play in every preseason and regular season game and nine in any playoff game.
    3. If five or more players leave the bench, the players will serve their suspensions alphabetically, according to the first letters of their last name.
    4. If seven bench players are suspended (assuming no participants are included), four of them would be suspended for the first game following the altercation. The remaining three would be suspended for the second game following the altercation.
  4. A player, coach or assistant coach, upon being notified by an official that he has been ejected from the game, must leave the playing area IMMEDIATELY and remain in the dressing room of his team during such suspension until completion of the game or leave the building.  Violation of this rule shall call for an automatic fine. A fine not to exceed $50,000 and possible forfeiture of the game may be imposed for any violation of this rule.
  5. Any player who in the opinion of the officials has deliberately hung on the basket ring shall be assessed a non-unsportsmanlike technical foul and a fine of $2000.
    1. EXCEPTION: An offensive or defensive player may hang on the basket ring, backboard or support to prevent an injury to himself or another player, with no penalty.
  6. At halftime and the end of each game, the coach and his players are to leave the court and go directly to their dressing room, without pause or delay. There is to be absolutely no talking to game officials.
    1. PENALTY—$2000 fine to be doubled for any additional violation.
  7. Any player who is assessed a flagrant foul—penalty (2) must be ejected and will be fined a minimum of $2,000. The incident will be reported to the League Office.

B. Personal Foul

Section I—Types

  1. A player shall not hold, push, charge into, impede the progress of an opponent by extending a hand, arm, leg or knee or by bending the body into a position that is not normal.  Contact that results in the re-routing of an opponent is a foul which must be called immediately.
  2. Contact initiated by the defensive player guarding a player with the ball is not legal.  This contact includes, but is not limited to, forearm, hands, or body check.
    1. EXCEPTIONS:
      1. A defender may apply contact with a forearm to an offensive player with the ball who has his back to the basket below the free throw line extended outside the Lower Defensive Box.
      2. A defender may apply contact with a forearm and/or one hand with a bent elbow to an offensive player in a post-up position with the ball in the Lower Defensive Box.
      3. A defender may apply contact with a forearm to an offensive player with the ball at any time in the Lower Defensive Box.  The forearm in the above exceptions is solely for the purpose of maintaining a defensive position.
      4. A defender may position his leg between the legs of an offensive player in a post-up position in the Lower Defensive Box for the purpose of maintaining defensive position.  If his foot leaves the floor in an attempt to dislodge his opponent, it is a foul immediately.
      5. Incidental contact with the hand against an offensive player shall be ignored if it does not affect the player’s speed, quickness, balance and/or rhythm.
  3. Any player whose actions against an opponent cause illegal contact with yet another opponent has committed the personal foul.
  4. A personal foul committed by the offensive team during a throw-in shall be an offensive foul, regardless of whether the ball has been released.
  5. Contact which occurs on the hand of the offensive player, while that part of the hand is in contact with the ball, is legal.
    1. EXCEPTION: Flagrant and punching fouls.
    2. PENALTIES: The offender is charged with a personal foul. The offending team is charged with a team foul if the illegal contact was caused by the defender. There is no team foul if there are personal fouls on one member of each team or the personal foul is against an offensive player. The offended team is awarded:
      1. the ball out-of-bounds on the sideline at the nearest spot where play was interrupted but no nearer to the baseline than the free throw line extended if an offensive foul is assessed.
      2. the ball out-of-bounds on the sideline where play was interrupted but no nearer to the baseline than the free throw line extended if the personal foul is on the defender and if the penalty situation is not in effect.
      3. one free throw attempt if the personal foul is on the defender and there is a successful field goal or free throw on the play.
      4. two/three free throw attempts if the personal foul is on the defender and the offensive player is in the act of shooting an unsuccessful field goal.
      5. one free throw attempt plus a penalty free throw attempt if the personal foul is on the defender and the offensive player is not in the act of attempting a field goal if the penalty situation is in effect.
      6. two free throw attempts and possession of the ball on the sideline nearest the spot where play was interrupted if an offensive player, or a teammate, is fouled while having a clear-path-to-the-basket. A clear path to the basket foul occurs if: (i) personal foul is committed on any offensive player during his team’s transition scoring opportunity; (ii) when the foul occurs, the ball is ahead the tip of the circle in the backcourt, no defender is ahead of the offensive player with the scoring opportunity and that offensive player is in control of the ball or a pass to him has been released; and (iii) the defensive foul deprives the offensive team of a transition scoring opportunity. A clear path to the basket foul cannot occur if (i) the offensive player is fouled in the act of shooting or (ii) the foul is caused by the defender’s attempt to intercept or deflect a pass intended for the offensive player with the transition scoring opportunity.
      7. two free throw attempts if a personal foul is committed against an offensive player without the ball when his team has at least a one-man advantage on a fast break and the defensive player takes a foul to stop play.

Section II—By Dribbler

  1. A dribbler shall not (1) charge into an opponent who has established a legal guarding position, or (2) attempt to dribble between two opponents, or (3) attempt to dribble between an opponent and a boundary, where sufficient space is not available for illegal contact to be avoided.
  2. If a defender is able to establish a legal position in the straight line path of the dribbler, the dribbler must avoid contact by changing direction or ending his dribble.
  3. The dribbler must be in control of his body at all times. If illegal contact occurs, the responsibility is on the dribbler.
    1. PENALTY: The offender is assessed an offensive foul. There is no team foul. The ball is awarded to the offended team on the sideline nearest the spot where play was interrupted but no nearer to the baseline than the free throw line extended.
    2. EXCEPTION: Rule 3—Section I—a.
  4. If a dribbler has sufficient space to have his head and shoulders in advance of his defender, the responsibility for illegal contact is on the defender.
  5. If a dribbler has established a straight line path, a defender may not crowd him out of that path.
    1. PENALTY: The defender shall be assessed a personal foul and a team foul. If the penalty is not in effect, the offended team is awarded the ball on the sideline nearest the spot where play was interrupted but no nearer to the baseline than the free throw line extended. If the penalty is in effect, one free throw attempt plus a penalty free throw attempt is awarded.

Section III—By Screening

A player who sets a screen shall not (1) assume a position nearer than a normal step from an opponent, if that opponent is stationary and unaware of the screener’s position, or make illegal contact with an opponent when he assumes a position at the side or front of an opponent, or (3) assume a position so near to a moving opponent that he is not given an opportunity to avoid contact before making illegal contact, or (4) move laterally or toward an opponent being screened, after having assumed a legal position. The screener may move in the same direction and path of the opponent being screened.

In (3) above, the speed of the opponent being screened will determine what the screener’s stationary position may be. This position will vary and may be one to two normal steps or strides from his opponent.

Section IV—Flagrant Foul

  1. If contact committed against a player, with or without the ball, is interpreted to be unnecessary, a flagrant foul—penalty (1) will be assessed. A personal foul is charged to the offender and a team foul is charged to the
    1. PENALTY: (1) Two free throws shall be attempted and the ball awarded to the offended team on either side of the court at the free throw line extended. (2) If the offended player is injured and unable to attempt his free throws, his coach will select one of the remaining four players in the game to attempt the free throws. (3) His coach will pick the substitute, who may not be replaced until the ball is legally touched by a player on the court. (EXCEPTION: Rule 3—Section V—e.) (4) The injured player may not return to the game. (EXCEPTION: Rule 9-Section II-a-(2)) (5) A player will be ejected if he commits two flagrant fouls in the same game.
  2. If contact committed against a player, with or without the ball, is interpreted to be unnecessary and excessive, a flagrant foul—penalty (2) will be assessed. A personal foul is charged to the offender and a team foul is charged to the
    1. PENALTY: (1) Two free throws shall be attempted and the ball awarded to the offended team on either side of the court at the free throw line extended. (2) If the offended player is injured and unable to attempt his free throws, his coach will select a substitute and any player from the team is eligible to attempt the free throws. (3) This substitute may not be replaced until the ball is legally touched by a player on the court. EXCEPTION: Rule 3— Section V—e. (4) The injured player may return to the game at any time after the free throws are attempted. (5) This is an unsportsmanlike act and the offender is ejected.
  3. A flagrant foul may be assessed whether the ball is dead or alive.
  4. A foul must be reviewed using Instant Replay to confirm it meets the criteria to be ruled a Flagrant (1) or (2).

Section V—Free Throw Penalty Situations

  1. Each team is limited to four team fouls per regulation period without additional penalties. Common fouls charged as team fouls, in excess of four, will be penalized by one free throw attempt plus a penalty free throw attempt.
    1. The first four common fouls committed by a team in any regulation period shall result in the ball being awarded to the opposing team on the sideline nearest where play was interrupted.  The ball shall be awarded no nearer to the baseline than the free throw line extended.
    2. The first three common fouls committed by a team in any overtime period, shall result in the ball being awarded to the opposing team on the sideline nearest where play was interrupted.  The ball shall be awarded no nearer to the baseline than the free throw line extended.
    3. If a team has not committed its quota of four team fouls during the first ten minutes of any regulation period, or its quota of three team fouls during the first three minutes of any overtime period, it shall be permitted to incur one team foul during the last two minutes without penalty.
    4. During any overtime period, common fouls charged as team fouls in excess of three, will be penalized by one free throw plus a penalty free throw attempt.
    5. Personal fouls which are flagrant, punching, away-from-the-play, or clear-path- to-the-basket will carry their own separate penalties and are included in the team foul total.
    6. Personal fouls committed during a successful field goal attempt or free throw, which result in one free throw attempt being awarded, will not result in an additional free throw attempt if the penalty situation exists.
  2. A maximum of three points may be scored by the same team on a successful two point field goal attempt.
  3. A maximum of four points may be scored by the same team on a successful three point field goal attempt.

Section VI—Double Fouls

  1. No free throw attempts will be awarded on double fouls, whether they are personal or technical.
  2. Double personal fouls shall add to a player’s total, but not to the team total.
  3. If a double foul occurs, the team in possession of the ball at the time of the call shall retain possession.  Play is resumed on the sideline, nearest the point where play was interrupted but no nearer to the baseline than the free throw line extended. The shot clock is reset to 24 seconds if the ball is to be inbounded in the team’s backcourt or stay the same or reset to 14, whichever is greater, if the ball is to be inbounded in the frontcourt.
  4. If a double foul occurs with neither team in possession, or when the ball is in the air on an unsuccessful field goal or free throw attempt, play will be resumed with a jump ball at the center circle between any two opponents in the game at that time. If injury, ejection or disqualification makes it necessary for any player to be replaced, no substitute may participate in the jump ball. The jumper shall be selected from one of the remaining players in the
  5. If a double foul occurs on a successful field goal or free throw attempt, the team that has been scored upon will inbound the ball at the baseline as after any other
  6. If a double foul occurs as a result of a difference in opinion by the officials, no points can be scored and play shall resume with a jump ball at the center circle between any two opponents in the game at that time.  No substitute may participate in the jump ball.

Section VII—Offensive Fouls

  1. A personal foul assessed against an offensive player which is neither punching or flagrant shall be penalized in the following manner:
    1. No points can be scored by the offensive team
    2. The offending player is charged with a personal foul
    3. The offending team is not charged with a team foul
      1. EXCEPTION: Rule 3—Section I—a. No penalty free throws are awarded.
    4. The ball is awarded to the offended team out-of-bounds on the sideline at the nearest spot where play was interrupted but no nearer the baseline than the free throw line
  2. A personal foul assessed against an offensive player which is punching or flagrant shall be penalized in the following manner:
    1. No points can be scored by the offensive team
    2. The offending player is charged with a personal foul
    3. The offending team is charged with a team foul
    4. Two free throw attempts are awarded to the offended player
    5. The ball shall be awarded at the free throw line extended

Section VIII—Loose Ball Fouls

  1. A personal foul, which is neither a punching or flagrant, committed while there is no team control shall be administered in the following manner:
    1. Offending team is charged with a team foul
    2. Offending player is charged with a personal foul
    3. Offended team will be awarded possession on the sideline, nearest the spot where play was interrupted but no nearer the baseline than the foul line extended, if no penalty exists
    4. Offended player is awarded one free throw attempt plus a penalty free throw attempt if the offending team is in a penalty situation
  2. If a “loose ball” foul called against the defensive team is then followed by a successful field goal, one free throw attempt will be awarded to the offended player, allowing for the three point or four point play. This interpretation applies:
    1. Regardless of which offensive player is fouled
    2. Whether or not the penalty situation The ball can never be awarded to the scoring team out-of-bounds following a personal foul which occurs on the same play
  3. If a “loose ball” foul called against the defensive team is followed by a successful free throw, one free throw will be awarded to the offended player whether or not the penalty is in effect.
  4. If a “loose ball” foul called against the offensive team is then followed by a successful field goal attempt by the same offensive player, no points may be scored.

Section IX—Punching Fouls

  1. Illegal contact called on a player for punching is a personal foul and a team foul.  Two free throw attempts shall be awarded, regardless of the number of previous fouls in the period. The ball shall be awarded to the offended team out-of-bounds on either side of the court at the free throw line extended whether the free throw is successful or unsuccessful.
  2. Any player who throws a punch, whether it connects or not, has committed an unsportsmanlike act. He will be ejected following confirmation during review by instant replay and suspended for a minimum of one game.
  3. This rule applies whether play is in progress or the ball is dead.
  4. In the case where one punching foul is followed by another, all aspects of the rule are applied in both cases, and the team last offended is awarded possession on the sideline at the free throw line extended in the frontcourt.
  5. A fine not exceeding $50,000 and/or suspension may be imposed upon such player(s) by the Commissioner at his sole discretion.

Section X—Away-From-The-Play Foul

  1. Away from-the-play fouls, which are defined in Rule 4, Section III(h) on page 18, shall be administered as follows:
    1. A personal foul and team foul shall be assessed and one free throw attempt shall be awarded. The free throw may be attempted by any player in the game at the time the personal foul was committed.
    2. If the foul occurs when the ball is inbounds, the offended team shall be awarded the ball on the sideline at the nearest point where play was interrupted but no nearer to the baseline than the free throw line extended.
    3. If the foul occurs prior to the release on a throw-in, the offended team shall be awarded the ball at the original throw-in spot, with all privileges, if any, remaining.
      1. EXCEPTION: Rule 12-B—Section X—b.
  2. In the event that the personal foul committed is a flagrant or punching foul, the play shall be administered as follows:
    1. A personal foul and team foul shall be assessed and the free throw shooter shall be awarded two free throw attempts. The free throws may be attempted by any player in the game at the time the flagrant foul was committed.
    2. If a flagrant foul—penalty (1)  is  assessed  and  the  offended  player  is  unable to participate in the game, the substitute will be selected by his coach.  The two free throws may be attempted by any of the four remaining players in the game. The ball will be awarded to the offended team at the free throw line extended in the frontcourt. The injured player may return to the game.
    3. If a flagrant foul—penalty (2) or punching foul is assessed and the offended player is unable to attempt his free throws because of injury, the substitute will be selected by his coach.  The two free throws may be attempted by the substitute or any of the four remaining players in the game. If the offended player is unable to attempt his free throws as a result of being ejected, any of the four remaining players may attempt the free throws. The ball will be awarded to the offended team at the free throw line extended in the frontcourt. The injured player may return to the game.

RULE NO. 13: Instant Replay

Section I—Instant Replay Review Triggers

  1. Instant replay will be triggered in the following situations:
    1. A field goal made with no time remaining on the clock (0:00) at the end of any period.
    2. A foul called with no time remaining on the clock (0:00) at the end of any period.
    3. Officials are not reasonably certain whether a personal foul called at any time during a game met the criteria for a flagrant foul.
    4. An Altercation occurs. (For purposes  of  this  instant  replay  rule  only, an Altercation shall mean a  situation  in  which  (i)  two  or  more  players are engaged in (a) a fight or (b) a hostile physical interaction that is not part of normal basketball play and  that  does  not  immediately  resolve  by  itself  or  with the intervention of game officials or players, or (ii) a player, coach, trainer, or other team bench person commits a hostile act against another player, referee, coach, trainer, team bench person, or spectator (including, for example, through the use of a punch, elbow, kick, blow to the head, shove, or thrown object.)
    5. A play concludes (i) with no time remaining on the clock (0:00) at the end of any period or (ii) at a point when the game officials believe that actual time may have expired in any period; and the officials are reasonably certain that the game clock malfunctioned during the play.
    6. Officials are not reasonably certain at any time during a game whether (i) a successful field goal was scored correctly as a 2-point or 3-point field goal, or (ii) in the case of a called shooting foul, whether the player was attempting a 2-point or 3-point field goal; provided that the Replay Center Official did not trigger instant replay to review these matters as permitted by Section I-b(1)
    7. Officials are not reasonably certain as to which team should be awarded possession after a ball becomes out-of-bounds or whether a called out-of-bounds in fact occurred during the last two minutes of the fourth period or last two minutes of any overtime period(s).
    8. Officials are not reasonably certain at any time during a game whether (i) a successful field goal was released prior to the expiration of the shot clock, provided that the Replay Center Official did not trigger instant replay to review this matter as permitted by Section I-b(2) below, or (ii) a called foul was committed prior to the expiration of the shot
    9. Officials are not reasonably certain whether a personal foul called at any time during a game met the criteria for a clear-path-to-the-basket
    10. Officials are not reasonably certain as to which player should attempt free throws on a called
    11. Officials are not reasonably certain whether the ball touched the rim and thus whether the shot clock or game clock should be adjusted during the last two minutes of the fourth period or last two minutes of any overtime period(s).
    12. Officials have determined that illegal contact has occurred on a block/charge foul but are not reasonably certain as to whether the defender was inside or out- side the restricted area during the last two minutes of the fourth period or last two minutes of any overtime period(s).
    13. Officials are not reasonably certain whether a goaltending or basket interference violation was called correctly during the last two minutes of the fourth period or last two minutes of any overtime period(s).
    14. Officials are not reasonably certain whether an off-ball foul occurred prior to offensive player beginning his shooting motion on a successful basket if the off-ball foul is committed by a defensive player, (b) a defensive foul is committed prior to the ball being released on a throw-in or (c) the ball being released on a successful field goal if the off-ball foul is a double foul or committed by an offensive player.
    15. Officials are not reasonably certain whether a team had the correct number of players on the court while the ball is in play.
      1. Instant replay will NOT be used to check a successful basket in 1 above if the throw-in, free throw attempt or jump ball started with .2 or .1 on the game The officials will judge the legality of the basket in these situations based on the guidelines as set forth in Comments on the Rules L.
  2. Instant replay will be immediately triggered by the Replay Center Official in the following situations:
    1. The Replay Center Official is not reasonably certain whether (i) a successful field goal was scored correctly as a 2-point or 3-point field goal during the first 46 minutes of regulation or first three minutes of any overtime period, or (ii) in the case of a called shooting foul at any time during a game, the Replay Center Official is not reasonably certain whether the player was attempting a 2-point or 3-point field goal.
      1. NOTE: If the Replay Center Official did not trigger instant replay in accordance with Section I-b(1) above, the on-court game officials retain the right to independently trigger instant replay (See Section I-a(6)) within the time constraints set forth in Section II-f(1) below
    2. The Replay Center Official is not reasonably certain whether a successful field goal was released prior to expiration of the shot clock during the first 46 minutes of regulation or first three minutes of any overtime period.
      1. NOTE: If the Replay Center Official did not trigger instant replay in accordance with Section 1-b(2) above, the on-court game officials retain the right to independently trigger instant replay (See Section I-a(8)) within the time constraints set forth in Section II-h(1) below.

Section II—Reviewable Matters

  1. If an instant replay review is triggered as described in Section I-a(1) above, the Replay Center Official would review the video to determine whether time on the game clock expired before the ball left the shooter’s hand.  The Replay Center Official and on-court official(s) may also review the video to deter- mine only the following other matters:
    1. If the shot was timely, whether the successful field goal was scored correctly as a 2-point or 3-point field goal.
    2. If the shot was timely, whether the shooter committed a boundary line violation or the ball touched out-of-bounds prior to entering the basket. (For purposes of this review, the official would look only at the position of the shooter’s feet at the moment they last touched the floor immediately prior to (or, if applicable, during) the release of the shot.)
    3. Whether the shot clock expired before the ball left the shooter’s hand.
    4. Whether an 8-second backcourt violation occurred before the ball left the shooter’s hand.
    5. Whether any unsportsmanlike acts or unnecessary contact occurred.
  2. If an instant replay review is triggered as described in Section I-a(2) above, the Replay Center Official and official who called the foul would review the video to determine the following: (i) whether a called foul that is not committed on or by a player in the act of shooting occurred prior to the expiration of time on the game clock; or (ii) for a called foul that is committed on or by a player in the act of shooting: (a) whether the foul occurred prior to the expiration of time on the game clock; or (b) whether the shooter released the ball prior to the expiration of time on the game clock if the foul occurred after the expiration of time.  The Replay Center Official and on-court official(s) may also review the video to deter- mine only the following other matters:
    1. Whether the shooter fouled was attempting a 2-point or 3-point field
    2. Whether a player fouled committed a boundary line violation prior to the foul or the ball touched out of bounds on a successful basket.
    3. Whether the shot clock expired before the foul
    4. Whether an 8-second backcourt violation occurred before the player was fouled.
    5. Whether any unsportsmanlike acts or unnecessary contact occurred.
  3. If an instant replay review is triggered as described in Section I-a(3) above, the Replay Center Official and on-court officials would review the video to determine only the following issues:
    1. Whether the personal foul should stand or be ruled a flagrant foul penalty 1 or 2 or a technical foul.
    2. Whether any other players committed unsportsmanlike acts or unnecessary con- tact immediately prior to and/or immediately following the calling of the foul.
  4. If an instant replay review is triggered as described in Section I – a (4) above, the Replay Center Official and on-court officials would review the video to determine only the following issues:
    1. The identity of all players, coaches, trainers, or team bench persons involved in the Altercation and the action immediately prior to and immediately following the altercation.
    2. The level of involvement of each such player , coach, trainer, or team bench person.
    3. The appropriate penalty to be assessed against each such player, coach, trainer, or team bench person.
  5. If an instant replay review is triggered as described in Section I-a(5) above, the Replay Center Official and on-court official(s) would review the video to determine the fol- lowing issues:
    1. The proper time (if any) on the game clock following the clock malfunction by determining how much time on the game clock actually expired.
    2. For a successful field goal, whether the ball left the shooter’s hand prior to the expiration of actual time.
    3. Whether a called foul that is not committed on or by a player in the act of shooting occurred prior to the expiration of actual time.
    4. For a called foul that is committed on or by a player in the act of shooting:
      1. whether the foul occurred prior to the expiration of actual time; or
      2. whether the shooter released the ball prior to the expiration of actual time if the foul occurred after the expiration of actual time.
    5. If the shot was timely, whether the successful field goal was scored correctly as a 2-point or 3-point field goal or, in the case of a shooting foul, whether the shooter fouled was attempting a 2-point or 3-point field goal.
    6. If the shot was timely, whether the shooter committed a boundary line violation or the ball touched out-of-bounds prior to entering the basket or, in the case of a foul, whether the player fouled committed a boundary line violation. For purposes of this review, the Replay Center Official would look only at the position of the player’s feet at the moment they last touched the floor immediately prior to (or, if applicable, during) the release of the shot or the foul (as applicable).
    7. Whether the shot clock expired before the ball left the shooter’s hand or the foul occurred.
    8. Whether an 8-second backcourt violation occurred before the ball entered the frontcourt.
    9. Whether any unsportsmanlike acts or unnecessary contact NOTE: If time is added to the game clock:
      1. The team with possession of the ball when the horn or whistle sounds will retain possession on the sideline at the nearest spot.
      2. If the ball is released on an unsuccessful field goal attempt or is loose when the horn or whistle sounds, the ball will be jumped at center circle between any two opponents in the game.
      3. If the horn or whistle sounds while a successful field goal is in flight, the opposing team will inbound on the baseline as after any successful field goal.
  6. If an instant replay review is triggered as described in Section I-a(6) above, the Replay Center Official and on-court official(s) would review the video to determine the following issues:
    1. Whether the successful field goal was scored correctly as a 2-point or 3-point field Prior to the 2nd mandatory timeout in the 4th period, the review must take place at the next timeout or period break following the basket in question. If the next break is halftime, the review must take place prior to the officials leaving the court.  Following the 2nd mandatory timeout in the 4th period and any overtime period, the review must take place at the next clock stoppage, including immediately upon a successful basket when the clock stops in the last two minutes. If a successful 2-point/3-point field goal is not reviewed in accordance with the foregoing timing rules, the play can no longer be reviewed once the ball is inbound and touched on the court, a personal foul is assessed or violation is whistled.
    2. Whether the shooter fouled was attempting a 2-point or 3-point field goal. During the entire game, the review must take place prior to the shooter releasing the first free throw attempt.
    3. If the shot was timely, whether the shooter committed a boundary line violation or the ball touched out-of-bounds prior to entering the basket or, in the case of a foul, whether the player fouled committed a boundary line violation. For purposes of this review, the Replay Center Official would look only at the position of the player’s feet at the moment they last touched the floor immediately prior to (or, if applicable, during) the release of the shot or the foul (as applicable).
    4. Whether the shot clock expired before the ball left the shooter’s hand or the foul occurred.
    5. Whether any unsportsmanlike acts or unnecessary contact occurred.
  7. If an instant replay review is triggered as described in Section I-a(7) above, the Replay Center Official would review the video to determine which team should be awarded possession. The review must take place prior to the subsequent inbounding of the ball or, if applicable, jump ball.  The Replay Center Official on-court official(s) may also review the video to determine only the following other matters:
    1. Whether time on the game clock expired prior to the ball being out-of-bounds.
    2. Whether the shot clock expired prior to the ball being out-of-bounds.
    3. Whether an 8-second backcourt violation occurred prior to the ball being out-of- bounds.
    4. How much time remains in the period and/or on the shot clock.
    5. Whether any unsportsmanlike acts or unnecessary contact occurred.
  8. If an instant replay review is triggered as described in Section I – a (8) above, the Replay Center Official and the official who called the foul, if applicable would review the video to determine the following issues:
    1. Whether time on the shot clock expired before the ball left the shooter’s hand.  Prior to the 2nd mandatory timeout in the 4th period, the review must take place at the next timeout or period break following the basket in question. If the next break is halftime, the review must take place prior to the officials leaving the court. Following the 2nd mandatory timeout in the 4th period and any overtime period, the review will take place at the next clock stoppage, including immediately upon a successful basket when the clock stops in the last two minutes. If a shot clock violation is not reviewed in accordance with the foregoing timing rules, it may not be reviewed thereafter.
    2. Whether a called foul that is not committed on or by a player in the act of shooting occurred prior to the expiration of time on the shot clock.
    3. For a called foul that is committed on or by a player in the act of shooting: whether the foul occurred prior to the expiration of time on the shot clock; or (ii) whether the shooter released the ball prior to the expiration of time on the shot clock if the foul occurred after the expiration of time on the shot clock (During the entire game, the review of a foul occurring as the shot clock expires must take place prior to the shooter releasing the first free throw attempt or prior to the subsequent inbounding of the ball.)
    4. If the shot was timely, whether the successful field goal was scored correctly as a 2-point or 3-point field goal or, in the case of a shooting foul, whether the shooter fouled was attempting a 2-point or 3-point field goal.
    5. If the shot was timely, whether the shooter committed a boundary line violation or the ball touched out of bounds prior to entering the basket or, in the case of a foul, whether the player fouled committed a boundary line violation. For purposes of this review, the Replay Center Official would look only at the position of the player’s feet at the moment they last touched the floor immediately prior to (or, if applicable, during) the release of the shot or the foul (as applicable).
    6. Whether an 8-second backcourt violation occurred before the ball left the shooter’s hand or the player was fouled.
    7. Whether any unsportsmanlike acts or unnecessary contact occurred.
  9. If an instant replay review is triggered as described in Section I – a (9) above, the Replay Center Official and the official who called the foul would review the video to deter- mine the following issues:
    1. Whether, when the foul was called, the ball and an offensive player were positioned between the tip-of-circle extended in the backcourt and the basket in the frontcourt, with no defender between the ball and the basket or no defender ahead of the player being fouled with the opportunity to position himself between the ball and the basket or the defender who committed the foul against the player with the ball was not ahead of him anytime in the frontcourt.
    2. The offensive team had possession of the ball and the new play originated in the backcourt, including throw-ins.
    3. The foul deprived the offensive team of an opportunity to score.
    4. The foul was committed prior to the offensive player starting his shooting motion.
    5. Whether any unsportsmanlike acts or unnecessary contact occurred.
  10. If an instant replay review is triggered in Section I – a (10) above, the Replay Center Official and the official who called the foul would review the video to determine which player was The review must take place prior to the first free throw being released. The Officials would not review video to determine which player committed the foul in question. The Replay Center Official and on-court officials may review the video to determine only the following other matters:
    1. Whether the shooter fouled was attempting a 2-point or 3-point field goal.
    2. Whether the player fouled committed a boundary line violation prior to the foul.  For purposes of this review, the official would look only at the position of the player’s feet at the moment they last touched the floor immediately prior to (or, if applicable, during) the foul.
    3. Whether the shot clock expired before the foul occurred.
    4. Whether an 8-second backcourt violation occurred before the player was fouled.
    5. Whether any unsportsmanlike acts or unnecessary contact occurred.
  11. If an instant replay review is triggered in Section I-a (11) above, the Replay Center Official would review the video to determine whether the ball touched the rim, and make any adjustments to the game clock, shot clock, score and possession that are appropriate in accordance with the following:
    1. If play has stopped following the offensive team retaining possession (e.g., the offensive team has made a successful field goal, or a violation or foul has been called), the play must be reviewed immediately upon such stoppage of play and:
      1. For a successful field goal, the Replay Center Official will time the play to determine whether the field goal was released  prior  to  the  expiration of 24 seconds. If the Replay Center Official determines that the ball was released before the shot clock expired, the points will count and the opposing team will inbound on the baseline as after any successful field goal. If the Replay Center Official determines that the ball was released after the shot clock should have expired, the points will not count and the opposing team will be awarded the ball at the free throw line extended.
      2. For a called foul, the Replay Center Official and official who called the foul will time the play to determine whether the foul occurred prior to the expiration of the shot clock or, in the case of a called foul that is committed on a player in the act of shooting, whether the shooter released the ball prior to the expiration of the shot clock. If the Replay Center Official and official deter- mines that the foul occurred or the ball was released prior to the expiration of the shot clock, the called foul will be upheld. If the Replay Center Official determines that the foul occurred or the ball was released after the expiration of the shot clock, the called foul will be overturned and a shot clock violation assessed. (EXCEPTION: Flagrant fouls and unsportsmanlike acts and points scored therefrom will not be nullified.)
      3. If the ball is caused to become out-of-bounds by the defensive team or a defensive violation is assessed, the Replay Center Official will time the play to determine how much time should be on the shot clock or if a shot clock violation should be assessed.
    2. If play is continuous (i.e., if there is no stoppage in play following the offensive team retaining possession of the ball), the officials will stop play during the first pause in action prior to any subsequent change of possession.  If the Replay Center Official determines following the review that the shot clock is correct (i.e., no adjustment is required), then play will resume from the point of interruption. If the Replay Center Official determines that the shot clock is incorrect, then the shot clock will be reset to the time the ball was possessed by the offensive team following the ball touching (or not touching) the rim, and the game clock will also be reset to reflect the change. The ball will be inbounded on the sideline nearest the spot where the ball was possessed.
    3. If play is stopped while neither team is in possession of the ball and the Replay Center Official determines following the review that a shot clock violation has not occurred, then play will resume with a jump ball at center court between any two players in the The shot clock and game clock will be adjusted accordingly.
    4. Whether any unsportsmanlike acts or unnecessary contact occurred.
      1. If an instant replay review for a shot clock adjustment is not reviewed in accordance with the timing rules set forth above, it may not be reviewed at any point thereafter.
      2. The Replay Center Official will have the final ruling on all other scenarios and clock adjustments.
  12. If an instant replay review is triggered as described in Section I-a(12)  above, the Replay Center Official and the official who called the foul would review the video to determine:
    1. Whether the defender was inside or outside the restricted area.
    2. Whether the defender was in a legal guarding position.
    3. Whether any unsportsmanlike acts or unnecessary contact occurred.
  13. If an instant replay review is triggered as described in Section I-a(13) above, the Replay Center Official would review the video in accordance with Rule 11 Section The Replay Center Official and on-court officials(s) may also review the video to determine only the following other matters:
    1. If goaltending or basket interference was ruled prior to the ball touching the rim, whether the shooter committed a boundary line violation.  For purposes of this review, the Replay Center Official would look only at the position of the shooter’s feet at the moment they last touched the floor immediately prior to (or, if applicable, during) the release of the shot and the flight of the ball.
    2. If goaltending or basket interference was ruled prior to the ball touching the rim, whether an 8-second backcourt violation occurred before the ball left the shooter’s hand.
    3. Whether any unsportsmanlike acts or unnecessary contact occurred.
  14. If an instant replay review is  triggered  as  described  in  Section  I-a(14)  above, the Replay Center Official and the official who called the foul would review the video to determine:
    1. Whether the shot clock expired before the foul occurred.
    2. Whether an 8-second backcourt violation occurred before the player was fouled.
    3. Whether any unsportsmanlike acts or unnecessary contact occurred.
  15. If an instant replay review is triggered as described in Section I-a(15) above, the Replay Center Official would review the video in accordance with Rule 12A—Section III. The Replay Center Official and on-court official(s) may also review the video to determine whether any unsportsmanlike acts or unnecessary contact

Section III—Replay Review Process

  1. Replay reviews will be triggered by the on-court game officials in accordance with the rules set forth in Section II The Replay Center Official will determine the final outcome on all replays except Flagrant Fouls and Altercations, which will be decided by the on-court officials, with personnel in the Replay Center playing a supporting role. In all cases, the two game officials will inform both team benches that the play will be reviewed. For replay reviews to be determined by the Replay Center Official, the calling official, and the crew chief at his/her discretion, will go to the scorer’s table and put on the headset to receive the ruling from the Replay Center Official and the other on-court official(s) will prepare the players to return to play. If the ruling is to be made by the on-court officials, the crew chief and a second official will go to the scorer’s table and make the ruling with the assistance of the Replay Center Official. The third official will monitor the benches.
  2. Replay reviews should be conducted within two minutes. Notwithstanding this general rule, discretion will be used to extend the review period as reasonably necessary under unusual circumstances, such as when the play could lead to an ejection (e.g., flagrant fouls/penalty 2), technical issues arise with the replay system, the outcome of the replay review requires multiple replay review angles or additional angles are imminent. In addition, replay reviews of Player Altercations should be concluded within whatever time is reason- ably necessary, even if that time period extends beyond two minutes.
  3. If the replay system is not functioning properly, or not available, the officials will use the nearest courtside broadcast production TV monitor available.
  4. The Replay Center Official will use the following to make his/her ruling in the order listed below regarding scoring, timing or fouls at the end of any period:
    1. Game clock or shot clock on top of backboard
    2. LED lights
    3. Game clock on the facades of the balcony
    4. Game clock on score boards hanging from the ceiling
    5. Superimposed TV clocks
      1. EXCEPTION: For clock malfunctions when clocks start early, late or freeze— the Replay Center Official will use the digital clock in the Replay Center to make the final ruling.
  5. The officials will keep both teams on the court at the end of the second period if replay is being used to determine if a foul was called prior to expiration of the period or if there is any question whether the shooter committed a shot clock violation, 8-second violation or boundary line violation where time may be added to the game clock.
  6. The officials will keep both teams on the court anytime replay is used at the end of the fourth period or overtime period.

RULE NO. 14 – Coaches Challenge

To initiate a Challenge, the challenging team must take the following steps in sequence:

  1. The challenging team must call a legal timeout immediately after the call in question (unless a mandatory timeout or timeout called by the opposing team is already underway);
  2. The challenging team’s head coach must simultaneously signal for a Challenge by utilizing the instant replay signal (i.e., twirling an index finger) toward the game official(s) during the same interaction with the game official(s) in which the timeout was called or, if the timeout was called by a player on the challenging team, the challenging team’s head coach must simultaneously signal for the Challenge by utilizing the instant replay signal toward the game officials as the game official is notifying the scorekeeper of the timeout; and
  3. During the same interaction with the game official(s) in which the challenging team’s head coach signaled for the Challenge, the challenging team’s head coach must notify the game official(s) of the specific event that the team is challenging.

For purposes of this rule only, “immediately” shall mean that a timeout is called prior to the ball being given to the thrower-in, the ball being given to the free throw shooter, or the ball being tossed on a jump ball, whichever is applicable unless a mandatory timeout or timeout called by the opposing team is already underway).

b. To initiate a Challenge of an event that immediately preceded a mandatory timeout or timeout called by the opposing team, no later than 30 seconds from the start of the timeout (as measured by the timeout clock), the challenging team’s head coach must take the following steps in sequence:

  1. Signal for a Challenge by utilizing the instant replay signal toward the game officials; and
  2. During the same interaction with the game official(s) in which the challenging team’s head coach signaled for the Challenge, the challenging team’s head coach must notify the game official(s) of the specific event that the team is challenging.

c. In the event the game officials conference to determine the call on the floor (and, as a result, the final ruling on the play is unknown for a period of time), the window of time within which a team must immediately challenge the call starts after the officials notify the negatively affected team of the final ruling on the play. The negatively affected team’s window to challenge the final ruling on the play ends when the ball is given to the inbounder or free throw shooter, jump-ball is tossed, or 30 seconds after the team has been notified of the final ruling on the play in the event that a mandatory timeout or timeout by the opposing team has been called (whichever is applicable).

d. A team loses its opportunity to challenge the prior call if it is called for a delay-of-game after the call in question but prior to calling timeout and simultaneously signaling for a challenge.

e. Once instant replay is triggered by a valid Challenge, the official will notify the official scorer of the Challenge. The official scorer shall immediately record the Challenge and, once the instant replay review process is complete, the outcome of the Challenge (including whether the Challenge resulted in a loss of one timeout for the challenging time).

Extraído de la fuente original: https://official.nba.com/rulebook/

Cedric Arregui Guivarc'h
Entrenador Nacional de Baloncesto (CES 2014) y Árbitro por la Federación de Baloncesto de Madrid



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